Perineal Healing and Survival After Anal Cancer Salvage Surgery: 10-Year Experience with Primary Perineal Reconstruction Using the Vertical Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous (VRAM) Flap


Salvage surgery of recurrent or persistent anal cancer following radiotherapy is often followed by perineal wound complications. We examined survival and perineal wound complications in anal cancer salvage surgery during a 10-year period with primary perineal reconstruction predominantly performed using vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap. Between 1997 and 2006, 49 patients underwent anal cancer salvage surgery. Of these, 48 had primary reconstruction with VRAM. Overall survival was computed by the Kaplan–Meier method and mortality rate ratios (MRRs) by Cox regression. One patient (2%) died within 30 days postoperatively. Postoperative complications necessitated reoperation in eight (16%) patients. We found no major perineal wound infections. Major perineal wound breakdown occurred in the only patient in whom VRAM was not used. Five-year survival was 61% [95% confidence interval (CI) 43–75%]. Free resection margins (R0) were obtained in 78% of patients, with 5-year survival of 75% (95% CI 53–87%). Involved margins, microscopically only (R1) or macroscopically (R2), strongly predicted an adverse outcome [age-adjusted 2-year MRRs (95% CI) R1 vs. R0 = 4.1 (0.7–23.6), R2 vs. R0 = 10.9 (2.2–54.2)]. We conclude that anal cancer salvage surgery can yield long-time survival but obtaining free margins is critical. A low rate of perineal complications is achievable by primary perineal reconstruction using VRAM flap.

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This work has received financial support from the Danish Cancer Society.

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Correspondence to K. G. Sunesen.

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Sunesen, K.G., Buntzen, S., Tei, T. et al. Perineal Healing and Survival After Anal Cancer Salvage Surgery: 10-Year Experience with Primary Perineal Reconstruction Using the Vertical Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous (VRAM) Flap. Ann Surg Oncol 16, 68–77 (2009).

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  • Anal Cancer
  • Parastomal Hernia
  • Perineal Wound
  • Perineal Hernia
  • Vertical Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous