Complications after Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Independently Shorten Survival: A Western, Single-Center Audit
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The impact of postoperative complications (POCs) on long-term outcomes following hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) resection remains to be ascertained.
All consecutive HCC resected at a single center were analyzed. Patients with POCs, classified according to Clavien classification, were compared to those without in terms of demographics, pathology, management, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS). Independent prognostic factors of POCs were identified using multivariable regression models.
Among 341 patients, overall POCs rate was 34% (n = 116) and grade III–IV POCs rate was 14.4% (n = 49). POCs were an independent negative factor for OS [hazard ratio (HR) 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12–2.26, p = 0.009] with BCLC stage, the need for combined procedure, intraoperative transfusion, and the METAVIR score of the underlying parenchyma. Similarly, occurrence of POCs was associated independently with DFS (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.18–2.15, p = 0.002), together with the presence of portal hypertension, BCLC stage, the need for combined procedure, intraoperative transfusion, and the presence of satellite nodules. After stratification, the negative impact of morbidity on OS and DFS reached statistical significance in the BCLC stage A subset only (p = 0.026, and p < 0.001, respectively). Open resection, intraoperative transfusion, and the existence of underlying liver injury were independent predictors of POCs.
POCs should be considered as a long-term prognostic factor. Careful patient selection requiring underlying liver assessment and appropriate strategy, such as mini-invasive surgery and restricted transfusion policy, might be promoted to prevent POCs.
KeywordsOverall Survival Portal Hypertension Portal Vein Embolization Laparoscopic Liver Resection Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer
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