Annals of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 1726–1732 | Cite as

Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) for Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: The First 50 Cases

  • Andrea Hayes-Jordan
  • Holly Green
  • Heather Lin
  • Pascal Owusu-Agyemang
  • Rodrigo Mejia
  • Regina Okhuysen-Cawley
  • Jose Cortes
  • Nancy E. Fitzgerald
  • Mary Frances McAleer
  • Cynthia Herzog
  • Winston W. Huh
  • Peter Anderson
Pediatric Oncology



Extensive peritoneal metastatic disease is rare in children. Although usually manifested as carcinomatosis in adults, sarcomatosis is more common in children. The authors began a pediatric hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) program, and this report describes their initial results from the first 50 pediatric, adolescent, and young adult patients.


A single-institution, retrospective study investigated the first 50 cytoreductive surgeries and HIPEC by one surgeon for patients 3–21 years of age. The HIPEC was added to chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment. Demographics, outcome, and complications were recorded.


The median follow-up period for the surviving patients was 21.9 months. The most common diagnoses were desmoplastic small round cell tumor (n = 21), rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 7), mesothelioma (n = 4), and other carcinoma (n = 17). Multivariate analysis showed that patients treated with HIPEC and an incomplete cytoreduction had a greater risk for recurrence than those who had a complete cytoreduction (p = 0.0002). The patients with a higher peritoneal cancer index (PCI) (i.e., a large tumor burden) had a median overall survival (OS) time of 19.9 months relative to the patients with a lower PCI score, who had a median OS of 34 months (p = 0.049). The patients without complete cytoreduction had a median OS of 7.1 months compared with 31.4 months for the patients with complete cytoreduction (p = 0.012). No perioperative mortalities occurred. The incidence of major complications was 28 %.


Cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC with a programmatic approach for patients 3–21 years of age is unique. The best outcome was experienced by patients with desmoplastic small round cell tumor and those with complete cytoreduction. Complete cytoreduction for patients without disease outside the abdominal cavity at the time of surgery affords the best outcome.


Overall Survival Soft Tissue Sarcoma Median Overall Survival Rhabdomyosarcoma Cytoreductive Surgery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was supported in part by MD Anderson’s Cancer Center Support Grant CA016672.

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Society of Surgical Oncology 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Hayes-Jordan
    • 1
    • 5
  • Holly Green
    • 2
  • Heather Lin
    • 3
  • Pascal Owusu-Agyemang
    • 4
  • Rodrigo Mejia
    • 2
  • Regina Okhuysen-Cawley
    • 7
  • Jose Cortes
    • 2
  • Nancy E. Fitzgerald
    • 6
  • Mary Frances McAleer
    • 7
  • Cynthia Herzog
    • 2
  • Winston W. Huh
    • 2
  • Peter Anderson
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Surgical OncologyUniversity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiostatisticsUniversity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative MedicineUniversity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Diagnostic RadiologyUniversity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  6. 6.Department of Radiation OncologyUniversity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  7. 7.Department of Pediatric MedicineTexas Children’s HospitalHoustonUSA
  8. 8.Department of Pediatrics/Hematology-/Oncology & BMT and Cell Therapy, Levine Children’s Hospital/Levine Cancer InstituteCarolinas Healthcare SystemCharlotteUSA

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