Annals of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 22, Issue 7, pp 2309–2316 | Cite as

Improving Outcomes in Adrenocortical Cancer: An Australian Perspective

  • Julian C.Y. Ip
  • Tony C.Y. Pang
  • Anthony R. Glover
  • Patsy Soon
  • Stephen Clarke
  • Arthur Richardson
  • Peter Campbell
  • Bruce G. Robinson
  • Stan B. SidhuEmail author
Endocrine Tumors



Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy that carries a poor prognosis. There has yet to be a large Australian series that documents the characteristics of ACC and there are a paucity of data on management and the long-term outcomes. We sought to provide a unique insight into the management of ACC in Australia as well as to identify factors associated with prognosis and survival.


A multivariate analysis of a cohort of patients identified with ACC between 1998 and 2013 was undertaken. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed as the main outcome measures and correlated with multiple clinical variables in order to identify prognostic markers.


Of the 104 patients identified, a total of 98 patients with complete clinical and outcome data were included in the study. Median OS was 56 months, with the 5-year survival being 48 % (95 % confidence interval 36–59). On multivariate analysis, age ≥50 years, metastases at presentation, and evidence of extra-adrenal invasion were found to be statistically associated with reduced OS. RFS was analyzed in patients without metastases. On multivariate analysis, extra-adrenal invasion and no preoperative endocrine investigations were found to be statistically significant poor prognostic factors, with a non-significant trend for higher individual surgeon volume to be associated with improved resection margins and RFS.


We present clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with ACC in a landmark Australian series. We suggest that management in a specialized tertiary endocrine and/or surgical oncology unit is more likely to lead to improved outcomes.


Overall Survival Adrenocortical Carcinoma Mitotane Benign Adrenal Tumor Significant Poor Prognostic Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Julian Ip is an RACS Foundation for Surgery Richard Jepson Research Scholar. Stan Sidhu is a University of Sydney Medical School Foundation Fellow. The authors wish to acknowledge the clinicians who have kindly provided access to their patients’ medical records, which has made this study possible.


Julian C.Y. Ip, Tony C.Y. Pang, Anthony R. Glover, Patsy Soon, Stephen Clarke, Arthur Richardson, Peter Campbell, Bruce G. Robinson, and Stan B. Sidhu have no conflicts of interests to declare.


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Copyright information

© Society of Surgical Oncology 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julian C.Y. Ip
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Tony C.Y. Pang
    • 2
    • 4
  • Anthony R. Glover
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Patsy Soon
    • 5
  • Stephen Clarke
    • 2
  • Arthur Richardson
    • 4
  • Peter Campbell
    • 5
  • Bruce G. Robinson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stan B. Sidhu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Cancer Genetics, Kolling Institute of Medical ResearchRoyal North Shore Hospital and The University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Northern Clinical SchoolThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Endocrine and Oncology Surgical UnitRoyal North Shore Hospital and the University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Surgery, Westmead HospitalUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  5. 5.South Western Sydney Clinical SchoolUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

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