Annals of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 2428–2433 | Cite as

Cause of Death During Long-Term Follow-up for Superficial Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

  • Juha Kauppi
  • Ines Gockel
  • Tuomo Rantanen
  • Torsten Hansen
  • Ari Ristimäki
  • Hauke Lang
  • Eero Sihvo
  • Jari Räsänen
  • Theodor Junginger
  • Jarmo A. Salo
Thoracic Oncology



The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term prognosis and cause of death in patients with superficial esophageal adenocarcinoma (SEAC) after surgery.

Patients and Methods

A total of 85 patients without adjuvant or neoadjuvant treatment underwent surgery for SEAC (pT1N0–1, M0) 1984–2011. Medical records and causes of death were reviewed, and 79 specimens (93 %) were reanalyzed for cancer penetration. Survival was calculated according to Kaplan–Meier and comparisons of survival with log-rank test. Multivariate survival was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards model.


Of 85 patients, 36 had transhiatal, 33 transthoracic en bloc, 6 minimally invasive en bloc, 5 vagal sparing esophageal resection and 5 endoscopic mucosal resections; 7 patients (8 %) had lymph node metastasis (LNM). Cancer penetration: 35 pT1a and 44 pT1b. Overall survival was 67 % at 5 years and 50 % at 10 years. Disease-specific survival was 82 % at 5 years and 78 % at 10 years. Recurrence-free survival was 80 % at 5 years. In a Cox multivariate model, poor overall survival was predicted only by LNM. Cumulative mortality during median follow-up of 5 years (0–25 years): 37 of 85 (44 %). Cause of death of these 37: SEAC recurrence for 15 (41 %), postoperative complications for 4 (11 %), another primary malignancy for 5 (14 %), non-cancer-related for 11 (30 %) and for 2 (5 %) cause unknown. Mortality after 5-year follow-up: 11 (30 %); 82 % of these deaths were unrelated to SEAC recurrence.


With SEAC recurrence as the single most common cause of death, disease-specific 5-year survival was good. Overall and late (> 5-year) survival is affected by diseases related to aging.



The authors thank Mrs. Yvonne Sundström for her skillful technical and secretarial assistance. This study was supported by Helsinki University Central Hospital Research Funds (EVO). Professor Jarmo Salo had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Society of Surgical Oncology 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juha Kauppi
    • 1
  • Ines Gockel
    • 2
  • Tuomo Rantanen
    • 1
  • Torsten Hansen
    • 3
  • Ari Ristimäki
    • 4
  • Hauke Lang
    • 2
  • Eero Sihvo
    • 1
  • Jari Räsänen
    • 1
  • Theodor Junginger
    • 2
  • Jarmo A. Salo
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinic of General Thoracic and Esophageal SurgeryHelsinki University Central Hospital, Heart and Lung CenterHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Department of General and Abdominal SurgeryUniversity Medical CenterMainzGermany
  3. 3.Institute of PathologyUniversity Medical CenterMainzGermany
  4. 4.Department of Pathology, HUSLAB, Helsinki University Central Hospital and Haartman Institute and Genome-Scale Biology Research ProgramUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

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