Annals of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 1136–1141 | Cite as

Racial Disparities in Esophageal Cancer Outcomes

  • Sha’Shonda L. Revels
  • Arden M. Morris
  • Rishindra M. Reddy
  • Clifford Akateh
  • Sandra L. WongEmail author
Healthcare Policy and Outcomes



Racial disparities in outcomes have been documented among patients with esophageal cancer. The purpose of this study is to identify mechanisms for ethnicity/race-related differences in the use of cancer-directed surgery and mortality.


Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program were used to evaluate non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white and Hispanic patients diagnosed with non-metastatic esophageal cancer (squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma) from 2003–2008. Age, marital status, stage, histology and location were examined as predictors of receipt of surgery and mortality in multivariate analyses.


A total of 6,737 patient files (84 % white, 10 % black, 6 % Hispanic) were analyzed. Black and Hispanic patients were more likely than whites to have squamous cell carcinoma (86 vs. 41 vs. 26 %, respectively; p < 0.001) and lesions in the midesophagus (58 vs. 38 vs. 26 %, respectively; p < 0.001). Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to undergo esophagectomy (adjusted odds ratio 0.48, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.39–0.60 and 0.71, 95 % CI 0.56–0.90]. We noted significant variations in esophagectomy rates among patients with midesophageal cancers; 15 % of blacks underwent esophagectomy compared to 22 % of Hispanics and 29 % of whites (p < 0.001). Black and Hispanic patients had a higher unadjusted risk of mortality (hazard ratio 1.38, 95 % CI 1.25–1.52 and 1.20, 95 % CI 1.05–1.37). However, differences in mortality were no longer significant after adjusting for receipt of surgery.


Disparities in esophageal cancer outcomes are associated with the lower use of cancer-directed surgery. To decrease disparities in mortality it will be necessary to understand and target underlying causes of lower surgery rates in nonwhite patients and develop interventions, especially for midesophageal cancers.


Esophageal Cancer Resection Rate Black Patient Hispanic Patient Middle Esophagus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work is supported by funding from the University of Michigan Surgical Oncology Research Training Program (2T32 CA009672-21 National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute to SLR) and the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (UL1RR024986 National Institutes of Health/National Center for Research Resources to SLR and SLW).


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Copyright information

© Society of Surgical Oncology 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sha’Shonda L. Revels
    • 1
  • Arden M. Morris
    • 1
  • Rishindra M. Reddy
    • 1
  • Clifford Akateh
    • 1
  • Sandra L. Wong
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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