Annals of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 19, Issue 8, pp 2590–2599 | Cite as

The Association Between Breast Cancer Prognostic Indicators and Serum 25-OH Vitamin D Levels

  • Luke J. PepponeEmail author
  • Aaron S. Rickles
  • Michelle C. Janelsins
  • Michael R. Insalaco
  • Kristin A. Skinner
Breast Oncology



Studies show that women with low vitamin D levels have an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) incidence and mortality, but there is a lack of research examining vitamin D levels and prognostic variables in BC patients. The aim of this study is to examine 25-OH vitamin D levels between BC cases and controls and by prognostic indicators among BC cases.


25-OH vitamin D levels were collected from 194 women who underwent BC surgery and 194 cancer-free (CF) controls at the University of Rochester between January 2009 and October 2010. Mean 25-OH vitamin D levels and odds ratios (OR) were calculated by case/control status for the overall cohort and by prognostic indicators (invasiveness, ER status, triple-negative status, Oncotype DX score, molecular phenotype) for BC cases.


BC cases had significantly lower 25-OH vitamin D levels than CF controls (BC: 32.7 ng/mL vs. CF: 37.4 ng/mL; P = .02). In case-series analyses, women with suboptimal 25-OH vitamin D concentrations (<32 ng/mL) had significantly higher odds of having ER− (OR = 2.59, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.08–6.23) and triple-negative cancer (OR = 3.15, 95% CI = 1.05–9.49) than those with optimal 25-OH D concentrations. Women with basal-like phenotype had lower 25-OH vitamin D levels than women luminal A phenotype (basal-like: 24.2 ng/mL vs. luminal A: 32.8 ng/mL; P = 0.04).


BC patients with a more aggressive molecular phenotype (basal-like) and worse prognostic indicators (ER− and triple-negative) had lower mean 25-OH vitamin D levels. Further research is needed to elucidate the biological relationship between vitamin D and BC progression.


Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Breast Cancer Case Poor Prognostic Indicator Breast Cancer Cell Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Society of Surgical Oncology 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luke J. Peppone
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aaron S. Rickles
    • 2
  • Michelle C. Janelsins
    • 1
  • Michael R. Insalaco
    • 3
  • Kristin A. Skinner
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Radiation OncologyUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochester, New YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochester, New YorkUSA
  3. 3.Clinical Laboratory ServicesUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochester, New YorkUSA

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