Skip to main content
Log in

Dermaplaning for Transdermal Drug Permeation Enhancement: A Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment

  • Research Article
  • Active and Passive Permeation Enhancement Strategies for Transdermal Delivery of Bioactive Compounds
  • Published:
  • volume 24, Article number: 54 (2023)
AAPS PharmSciTech Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Cite this article


In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of dermaplaning, a popular cosmeceutical skin rejuvenation technique on the permeation of drugs. Baclofen and diclofenac were used as hydrophilic and hydrophobic model drugs, respectively. A specific area of skin was treated with 4 strokes of a dermaplane device. Interindividual variability was assessed by having multiple users operate the device for the study. Dermaplaned skin was histologically evaluated and characterized for resistance drop and the depletion of the stratum corneum (SC). The effect of dermaplaning on drug permeation was investigated via in vitro permeation studies. Histology studies depicted the removal of SC and some parts of viable epidermis by dermaplaning. A significant drop in electrical resistance post skin dermaplaning was observed for all treatment groups, signifying the depletion of barrier properties of SC (p < 0.05). Consequently, significant drug flux and permeation were observed over 24 h for the model drugs across dermaplaned skin. However, varied absorption profile was observed in vitro for both drugs across dermaplaned skin. Dermaplaning displayed a better suitability for significantly enhancing the permeation of the hydrophilic drug, baclofen. Evidence of variation in results post dermaplaning was observed amidst multiple users as well (p < 0.05).

Graphical Abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Data Availability

Authors confirm that all data supporting claims and conclusions in this article are available within the manuscript and we are willing to provide raw data files on request.


  1. Hwa C, Bauer EA, Cohen DE. Skin biology. Dermatol Ther. 2011;24:464–70.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Förster M, Bolzinger MA, Fessi H, Briançon S. Topical delivery of cosmetics and drugs. Molecular aspects of percutaneous absorption and delivery. Eur J Derm. 2009;19:309–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Skin: The Human Body’s Largest Organ | Live Science [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 20]. Available from:

  4. Kováčik A, Kopečná M, Vávrová K. Permeation enhancers in transdermal drug delivery: benefits and limitations. Exp Opin Drug Deliv Taylor and Francis Ltd. 2020;17:145–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Puri A, Nguyen HX, Tijani AO, Banga AK. Characterization of microneedles and microchannels for enhanced transdermal drug delivery. Ther Deliv [Internet]. Future Science Ltd; 2021 [cited 2021 Jan 25];12:77–103. Available from:

  6. Prausnitz MR, Langer R. Transdermal drug delivery. Nat Biotechnol [Internet]. NIH Public Access; 2008 [cited 2021 Dec 12];26:1261. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC2700785/.

  7. Prausnitz MR, Mitragotri S, Langer R. Current status and future potential of transdermal drug delivery [Internet]. Nat Rev Drug Discov. Nature Publishing Group; 2004 [cited 2021 Jan 30]. p. 115–24. Available from:

  8. Tijani A, Dogra P, Peláez MJ, Wang Z, Cristini V, Puri A. Mechanistic modeling-guided optimization of microneedle-based skin patch for rapid transdermal delivery of naloxone for opioid overdose treatment. Drug Deliv Transl Res [Internet]. Drug Deliv Transl Res; 2022 [cited 2022 Dec 4]; Available from:

  9. Zorec B, Préat V, Miklavčič D, Pavšelj N. Active enhancement methods for intra- and transdermal drug delivery: a review. Zdravniski Vestnik. 2013;82:339–56.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Donnelly RF. Active enhancement methods in transdermal drug delivery: current status and future perspectives. Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers Drug Penetration Into/Through the Skin: Methodology and General Considerations. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 2017. p. 359–66.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  11. Ziaeifar E, Ziaeifar F, Mozafarpoor S, Goodarzi A. Applications of microneedling for various dermatologic indications with a special focus on pigmentary disorders: a comprehensive review study. Dermatol Ther [Internet]. Dermatol Ther; 2021 [cited 2022 Jun 20];34. Available from:

  12. Dermaplaning, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels: what’s the difference? — New River Dermatology [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 30]. Available from:

  13. Dermaplaning: efficacy, side effects, and more [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 20]. Available from:

  14. Introduction to different types of dermaplaning blades – Robbins Instruments, Inc. [Internet]. [cited 2022 Sep 11]. Available from:

  15. Holman M, Tijani A, Klein J, Frempong D, Dinh S, Puri A. Penetration enhancement strategies for intradermal delivery of cromolyn sodium. 2022 [cited 2022 Jun 23];23:171. Available from:

  16. Fang J-Y, Lee W, Shen S-C, Fang Y-P, Hu C-H. Enhancement of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid delivery by erbium:YAG laser and microdermabrasion: a comparison with iontophoresis and electroporation. British Journal of Dermatology. 2004;151(1):132–40.

  17. Puri A, Nguyen HX, Banga AK. Microneedle-mediated intradermal delivery of epigallocatechin-3- gallate. Int J Cosmet Sci [Internet]. Int J Cosmet Sci; 2016 [cited 2022 Mar 25];38:512–23. Available from:

  18. Nguyen HX, Puri A, Bhattaccharjee SA, Banga AK. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of lateral diffusion of drugs in human skin. Int J Pharm [Internet]. Int J Pharm; 2018 [cited 2022 Mar 25];544:62–74. Available from:

  19. Cernasov D. The design and development of anti-aging formulations. Skin Aging Handbook. William Andrew Publishing; 2009;291–325.

  20. Singh AK. Nanoparticle pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics. Engineered Nanoparticles. Academic Press; 2016;229–93.

  21. Junaid MSA, Banga AK. Transdermal delivery of baclofen using iontophoresis and microneedles. AAPS PharmSciTech 2022 23:3 [Internet]. Springer; 2022 [cited 2022 Apr 16];23:1–8. Available from:

  22. Tips on Technique: Part 19 - DermaplanePro [Internet]. [cited 2022 Oct 26]. Available from:

  23. Hagen M, Baker M. Skin penetration and tissue permeation after topical administration of diclofenac. Curr Med Res Opin [Internet]. Taylor and Francis Ltd; 2017 [cited 2022 Sep 11];33:1623–34. Available from:

  24. Gill HS, Andrews SN, Sakthivel SK, Fedanov A, Williams IR, Garber DA, et al. Selective removal of stratum corneum by microdermabrasion to increase skin permeability. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2009;38:95–103.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



Akeemat Tijani: acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data, drafting and revising manuscript. Dorcas Frempong: acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data. Jagroop Kaur: acquisition and analysis of data. Sophia Sergent: acquisition and analysis of data. Kara Shaw: acquisition and analysis of data. Rebecca Lessaint: acquisition and analysis of data. Maryam Al Shawi: acquisition and analysis of data. Gabrielle Verana: acquisition and analysis of data. Ashana Puri: supervision, acquisition, analysis of data, manuscript revision.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ashana Puri.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Communicated by Jayachandra Babu Ramapuram and Ashana Puri.

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (PDF 85 kb)

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tijani, A.O., Frempong, D., Kaur, J. et al. Dermaplaning for Transdermal Drug Permeation Enhancement: A Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment. AAPS PharmSciTech 24, 54 (2023).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: