Development and Characterization of Novel Medicated Nanofiber for the Treatment of Periodontitis

Abstract

Periodontitis is a common microbial infection that involves pocket formation due to the destruction of periodontal ligament. The present work is oriented to provide a holistic approach for the treatment of periodontitis comprising localized delivery of nanometric hydroxyapatite as a reinforcing filler and silver–metronidazole as periodontal pocket disinfectant adjunct to current periodontal therapy because of its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and low systemic toxicity. In the present work, electrospinning technique was used to prepare medicated nanofiber enriched with antibacterial-hydroxyapatite layers for dental application. The optimized formulation was characterized by SEM, FTIR, DSC, XRD, etc. Safety assessment and therapeutic potential of optimized formulation was evaluated in both in vitro and in vivo animal models. The newly synthesized complex (silver–metronidazole) exhibited higher antibacterial activity against the selected strain over the referenced silver and metronidazole. Results of in vitro studies suggested good compatibility of the metal complex with the polymer matrix. The drug release behavior from optimized formulation shows constant in vitro release behavior. Both in vitro and in vivo studies show broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of the metal complex and demonstrate the potential of biomimetic nano-hydroxyapatite for filling periodontal defects. All these observations indicated that the above formulation could play a useful role in the treatment of periodontitis.

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Correspondence to Goutam Rath.

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Deepak, A., Goyal, A.K. & Rath, G. Development and Characterization of Novel Medicated Nanofiber for the Treatment of Periodontitis. AAPS PharmSciTech 19, 3687–3697 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-018-1177-y

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KEY WORDS

  • periodontitis
  • biodegradable nanofiber
  • silver–metronidazole complex
  • polyvinyl alcohol
  • hydroxyapatite