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Medicated Chewing Gums (MCGs): Composition, Production, and Mechanical Testing

Abstract

Medicated chewing gums (MCGs) represent a unique platform for drug delivery. They have been defined as solid single-dose preparations, which may contain more than one active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with base consisting primarily of gum that has to be chewed for a certain period of time. They mainly contain a tasteless masticatory gum base as the core with other minor nonmasticatory ingredients, such as flavors and sweeteners. Despite their advantages in drug delivery, MCGs remain a niche product due to the complexity of their formulation, lack of acceptable testing methods, and intricacy of their manufacturing. Few studies have been reported on their use, and most of the information on their composition and production could be found in patent search. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of gum composition, manufacturing process, and characterization. Due to the scarcity of studies concerning the evaluation of the mechanical properties of MCGs, greater emphasis was placed on the available performance tests and procedures for the estimation of their mechanical and textural properties. While very few tests have been recommended by the official pharmacopeias, several tests have been suggested for assessing the mechanical properties of MCGs in vitro. Properties, such as chewiness, elasticity, and firmness, of chewing gums during mastication are imperative quality attributes that have been found to strongly correlate with gum composition and mouth feel.

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Correspondence to Sami Nazzal.

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Al Hagbani, T., Nazzal, S. Medicated Chewing Gums (MCGs): Composition, Production, and Mechanical Testing. AAPS PharmSciTech 19, 2908–2920 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-018-1123-z

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KEY WORDS

  • medicated chewing gum
  • mechanical properties
  • textural analysis
  • chewiness
  • gum composition
  • gum production