AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 1529–1543 | Cite as

Enhancing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Tamoxifen Citrate Loaded Span-Based Nano-Vesicles on Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cells

  • Mohammed A. Kassem
  • Mohamed A. Megahed
  • Sherif K. Abu Elyazid
  • Fathy I. Abd-Allah
  • Tamer M. Abdelghany
  • Ahmed M. Al-Abd
  • Khalid M. El-SayEmail author
Research Article


Serious adverse effects and low selectivity to cancer cells are the main obstacles of long term therapy with Tamoxifen (Tmx). This study aimed to develop Tmx-loaded span-based nano-vesicles for delivery to malignant tissues with maximum efficacy. The effect of three variables on vesicle size (Y1), zeta potential (Y2), entrapment efficiency (Y3) and the cumulative percent release after 24 h (Y4) were optimized using Box-Behnken design. The optimized formula was prepared and tested for its stability in different storage conditions. The observed values for the optimized formula were 310.2 nm, − 42.09 mV, 75.45 and 71.70% for Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. The examination using electron microscopy confirmed the formation of rounded vesicles with distinctive bilayer structure. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of the optimized formula on both breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and normal cells (BHK) showed enhanced selectivity (9.4 folds) on cancerous cells with IC50 values 4.7 ± 1.5 and 44.3 ± 1.3 μg/ml on cancer and normal cells, respectively. While, free Tmx exhibited lower selectivity (2.5 folds) than optimized nano-vesicles on cancer cells with IC50 values of 9.0 ± 1.1 μg/ml and 22.5 ± 5.3 μg/ml on MCF-7 and BHK cells, respectively. The promising prepared vesicular system, with greater efficacy and selectivity, provides a marvelous tool to overcome breast cancer treatment challenges.


Box-Behnken design Breast cancer cells In vitro cytotoxicity Optimization Tamoxifen citrate 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed A. Kassem
    • 1
  • Mohamed A. Megahed
    • 2
  • Sherif K. Abu Elyazid
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fathy I. Abd-Allah
    • 2
    • 3
  • Tamer M. Abdelghany
    • 4
  • Ahmed M. Al-Abd
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
  • Khalid M. El-Say
    • 3
    • 8
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial PharmacyCairo UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical TechnologyEgyptian Russian UniversityCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial PharmacyAl-Azhar UniversityCairoEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyAl-Azhar UniversityCairoEgypt
  5. 5.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.Pharmacology Department, Medical DivisionNational Research CenterGizaEgypt
  7. 7.Biomedical Research SectionNawah ScientificCairoEgypt
  8. 8.Department of PharmaceuticsKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

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