AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 1512–1519 | Cite as

Design and Characterization of Topical Formulations: Correlations Between Instrumental and Sensorial Measurements

  • Lívia Salomão Calixto
  • Victor Hugo Pacagnelli Infante
  • Patrícia M. B. G. Maia CamposEmail author
Research Article


The interaction between cosmetic emulsions and the skin’s surface is an important factor to consider in the development of topical formulations. Two important ingredients in cosmetic formulations are waxes and polymers. The physical and mechanical properties of formulations directly impact the interface skin-formulation. To evaluate this interaction, it is important to study the rheology, texture, and sensory properties. In this context, the aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of waxes and polymers on the rheological behavior, texture profile, and sensorial properties of topical formulations and the correlation between these parameters. The best combination of a wax and a polymer was determined by full factorial design of experiments and applied to develop eight formulations that were tested in relation to rheological, mechanical, and sensorial properties. The polymer helps with the spreadability of the formulation, and the wax had a strong influence on the parameters related to the structure of emulsions. A correlation between these parameters was observed. This way, it was possible to compare theoretical and practical data, except between the flow index and the work of shear. Finally, it was possible to predict sensorial aspects from rheological and texture parameters, making the formulation process easier and more integrated with all stages of the development of new topical formulations. Thus, the present study introduces a new proposal in the development of cosmetics.


polymers waxes topical formulations rheological behavior mechanical properties sensory analysis 


Funding Information

We thank Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) for providing financial support (grant numbers 2014/11.460-5) and the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) for granting a Ph.D Fellowship to L.S.C.


  1. 1.
    Hunter RJ. Foundations of colloid science, volume I. London: Oxford University Press; 1987.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adeyeye MC, Jain AC, Ghorab MK, Reilly WJ. Viscoelastic evaluation of topical creams containing microcrystalline cellulose/sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as stabilizer. AAPS PharmSciTech 2002;3(2),16–25,
  3. 3.
    Kennedy RA, Kennedy ML. Effect of selected non-ionic surfactants on the flow behavior of aqueous veegum suspensions. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2007;8(1):E171–6. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PMBG. Rheological behavior and the SPF of sunscreens. Int J Pharm. 2003;250(1):35–44. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Binks BP, Rocher A. Effects of temperature on water-in-oil emulsions stabilized solely by wax microparticles. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2009;335(1):94–104. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rodrigues DC, Caceres CA, Ribeiro HL, De Abreu RF, Cunha AP, Azeredo HM. Influence of cassava starch and carnauba wax on physical properties of cashew tree gum-based films. Food Hydrocoll. 2014;38:147–51. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Beri A, Norton JE, Norton IT. Effect of emulsifier type and concentration, aqueous phase volume and wax ratio on physical, material and mechanical properties of water in oil lipsticks. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2013;35(6):613–21. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Haj-Shafiei S, Ghosh S, Rousseau D. Kinetic stability and rheology of wax-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions at different water cuts. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013;410:11–20. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abu-Jdayil B, Mohameed HA. Rheology of Dead Sea shampoo containing the antidandruff climbazole. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2004;26(6):281–9. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Patil Q, Ferritto MS. Polymers for personal care and cosmetics: overview. ACS symposium series. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society; 2013. p. 3–11.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gilbert L, Picard C, Savary G, Grisel M. Impact of polymers on texture properties of cosmetic emulsions: a methodological approach. J Sens Stud. 2012;27(5):392–402. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang S, Kislalioglu MS, Breuer M. The effect of rheological properties of experimental moisturizing creams/lotions on their efficacy and perceptual attributes. Int J Cosmet Sci. 1999;21(3):167–88. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shafiq-un-Nabi S, Shakeel F, Talegaonkar S, Ali J, Baboota S, Ahuja A, et al. Formulation development and optimization using nanoemulsion technique: a technical note. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2007;8(2):E12–7. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Terescenco D, Picard C, Clemenceau F, Grisel M, Savary G. Influence of the emollient structure on the properties of cosmetic emulsion containing lamellar liquid crystals. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp. 2018;536:10–19.
  15. 15.
    Llamas S, Guzman E, Ortega F, Baghdadli N, Cazeneuve C, Rubio RG, et al. Adsorption of polyelectrolytes and polyelectrolytes-surfactant mixtures at surfaces: a physico-chemical approach to a cosmetic challenge. Adv Colloid Interf Sci. 2015;222:461–87. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Calixto LS, Maia Campos PMBG. Physical mechanical characterization of cosmetic formulations and correlation between instrumental measurements and sensorial properties. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2017;39(5):527–34. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schnittger S, Sinha M. The materials science of cosmetics. MRS Bull. 2007;32(10):760–9. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu H, Xu XM, Guo SD. Rheological, texture and sensory properties of low-fat mayonnaise with different fat mimetics. LWT Food Sci Technol. 2007;40(6):946–54. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Garrido JI, Lozano JE, Genovese DB. Effect of formulation variables on rheology, texture, colour, and acceptability of apple jelly: modelling and optimization. LWT Food Sci Technol. 2015;62(1):325–32. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Diezhandino I, Fernández D, Sacristán N, Combarros-fuertes P, Prieto B, Fresno JM. Rheological, textural, colour and sensory characteristics of a Spanish blue cheese (Valdeón cheese). LWT Food Sci Technol. 2016;65:1118–25. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lukic M, Jaksic I, Krstonosic V, Cekic N, Savic S. A combined approach in characterization of an effective w/o hand cream: the influence of emollient on textural, sensorial and in vivo skin performance. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2012;34(2):140–9. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gilbert L, Picard C, Savary G, Grisel M. Rheological and textural characterization of cosmetic emulsions containing natural and synthetic polymers: relationships between both data. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp. 2013;421:150–63. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brenner T, Hayakawa F, Ishihara S, Tanaka Y, Nakauma M, Kohyama K, et al. Linear and nonlinear rheology of mixed polysaccharide gels. Pt. II. Extrusion, compression, puncture and extension tests and correlation with sensory evaluation. J Texture Stud. 2014;45(1):30–46. Scholar
  24. 24.
    Savary G, Grisel M, Picard C. Impact of emollients on the spreading properties of cosmetic products: a combined sensory and instrumental characterization. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces. 2013;102:371–8. Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yilmaz E, Öğütcü M. Comparative analysis of olive oil organogels containing beeswax and sunflower wax with breakfast margarine. J Food Sci. 2014;79(9):E1732–8. Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chaudhary H, Kohli K, Amin S, Rathee P, Kumar V. Optimization and formulation design of gels of Diclofenac and Curcumin for transdermal drug delivery by Box-Behnken statistical design. J Pharm Sci. 2011;100(2):580–93. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fangueiro JF, Andreani T, Egea MA, Garcia ML, Souto SB, Souto EB. Experimental factorial design applied to mucoadhesive lipid nanoparticles via multiple emulsion process. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces. 2012;100:84–9. Scholar
  28. 28.
    Behera B, Singh VK, Kulanthaivel S, Bhattacharya MK, Paramanik K, Banerjee I, et al. Physical and mechanical properties of sunflower oil and synthetic polymers based bigels for the delivery of nitroimidazole antibiotic—a therapeutic approach for controlled drug delivery. Eur Polym J. 2015;64:253–64. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vieira GS. Análise Sensorial: Terminologia, Desenvolvimento de Padrões e Treinamento de Painelistas para Avaliação de Produtos Cosméticos. 168 f. Dissertation (Master Thesis). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. 2015.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cohen J, Cohen P, West SG, Aiken LS. Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. 3rd edition, Routledge, Chapter 2. 2003.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mukaka MM. A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. Malawi Med J. 2012;7:69–71.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Andrade FF, Santos ODH, Oliveira WP, Rocha-Filho PA. Influence of PEG-12 Dimethicone addition on stability and formation of emulsions containing liquid crystal. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2007;29(3):211–8. Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wagemaker TA, Silva SA, Leonardi GR, Maia Campos PMBG. Green Coffea arabica L. seed oil influences the stability and protective effects of topical formulations. Ind Crop Prod. 2015;63:34–40. Scholar
  34. 34.
    Taherian AR, Fustier P, Ramaswamy HS, Hosahalli S. Effect of added oil and modified starch on rheological properties, droplet size distribution, opacity and stability of beverage cloud emulsions. J Food Eng. 2006;77(3):687–96. Scholar
  35. 35.
    Allmendinger A, Fischer S, Huwyler J, Mahler HC, Schwarb E, Zarraga IE, et al. Rheological characterization and injection forces of concentrated protein formulations: an alternative predictive model for non-Newtonian solutions. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2014;87(2):318–28. Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tai A, Bianchini R, Jachowicz J. Texture analysis of cosmetic/pharmaceutical raw materials and formulations. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2014;36(4):291–304. Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pailler-Mattei C, Nicoli S, Pirot F, Vargiolu R, Zahouani H. A new approach to describe the skin surface physical properties in vivo. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces. 2009;68(2):200–6. Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gilbert L, Savary G, Grisel M, Picard C. Predicting sensory texture properties of cosmetic emulsions by physical measurements. Chemom Intell Lab Syst. 2013;124:21–31. Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lívia Salomão Calixto
    • 1
  • Victor Hugo Pacagnelli Infante
    • 1
  • Patrícia M. B. G. Maia Campos
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão PretoUniversity of São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil

Personalised recommendations