AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 1606–1624 | Cite as

A Mechanistic Study to Determine the Structural Similarities Between Artificial Membrane Strat-M™ and Biological Membranes and Its Application to Carry Out Skin Permeation Study of Amphotericin B Nanoformulations

  • Lakhvir Kaur
  • Kanwaldeep Singh
  • Surinder Paul
  • Sukhprit Singh
  • Shashank Singh
  • Subheet Kumar JainEmail author
Research Article


Type of biological membrane used in skin permeation experiment significantly affects skin permeation and deposition potential of tested formulations. In this study, a comparative study has been carried out to evaluate the potential of a synthetic membrane (Strat-M™) with rat, human, and porcine ear skin to carry out skin permeation study of nanoformulations of a high molecular weight drug, amphotericin B. Results demonstrated that the permeation of this high molecular weight drug through Strat-M™ showed close similitude to human skin. Value of correlation coefficient (R2) of log diffusion between Strat-M™ and human skin was found to be 0.99 which demonstrated the similarities of Strat-M™ membrane to the human skin. In similarity factor analysis, the value of f2 was also found to be 85, which further demonstrated the similarities of Strat-M™ membrane to human skin. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis of synthetic and biological membranes depicted almost similar morphological features (thickness, pore size, surface morphology, and diameter) of synthetic membrane with human skin. The results of the study demonstrated Strat-M™ as a better alternative to carry out skin permeation experiment due to the consistent results, reproducibility, easy availability, and minimum variability with human skin.


Strat-M™ Human skin Similarity factor analysis Mechanistic study BET analysis Surface analysis Dermatophytosis 



One of authors Ms. Lakhvir Kaur is thankful to DST, New Delhi, for providing senior research fellowship under INSPIRE scheme. The authors are thankful to UGC, New Delhi for providing the financial assistance [scheme No. 42-673/2013(SR)]

Author’s Contribution

All authors contributed in design of this manuscript in one or other aspects.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All animal experimentations were performed after approval by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (Registration no. 226/PO/Re/S/2000/CPCSEA).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lakhvir Kaur
    • 1
  • Kanwaldeep Singh
    • 2
  • Surinder Paul
    • 3
  • Sukhprit Singh
    • 4
  • Shashank Singh
    • 5
  • Subheet Kumar Jain
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesGuru Nanak Dev UniversityAmritsarIndia
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyGovernment Medical CollegeAmritsarIndia
  3. 3.Department of PathologyGovernment Medical CollegeAmritsarIndia
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryGuru Nanak Dev UniversityAmritsarIndia
  5. 5.Indian Institute of Integrative MedicineJammuIndia

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