A Mechanistic Study to Determine the Structural Similarities Between Artificial Membrane Strat-M™ and Biological Membranes and Its Application to Carry Out Skin Permeation Study of Amphotericin B Nanoformulations
- 317 Downloads
Type of biological membrane used in skin permeation experiment significantly affects skin permeation and deposition potential of tested formulations. In this study, a comparative study has been carried out to evaluate the potential of a synthetic membrane (Strat-M™) with rat, human, and porcine ear skin to carry out skin permeation study of nanoformulations of a high molecular weight drug, amphotericin B. Results demonstrated that the permeation of this high molecular weight drug through Strat-M™ showed close similitude to human skin. Value of correlation coefficient (R2) of log diffusion between Strat-M™ and human skin was found to be 0.99 which demonstrated the similarities of Strat-M™ membrane to the human skin. In similarity factor analysis, the value of f2 was also found to be 85, which further demonstrated the similarities of Strat-M™ membrane to human skin. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis of synthetic and biological membranes depicted almost similar morphological features (thickness, pore size, surface morphology, and diameter) of synthetic membrane with human skin. The results of the study demonstrated Strat-M™ as a better alternative to carry out skin permeation experiment due to the consistent results, reproducibility, easy availability, and minimum variability with human skin.
KEY WORDSStrat-M™ Human skin Similarity factor analysis Mechanistic study BET analysis Surface analysis Dermatophytosis
One of authors Ms. Lakhvir Kaur is thankful to DST, New Delhi, for providing senior research fellowship under INSPIRE scheme. The authors are thankful to UGC, New Delhi for providing the financial assistance [scheme No. 42-673/2013(SR)]
All authors contributed in design of this manuscript in one or other aspects.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All animal experimentations were performed after approval by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (Registration no. 226/PO/Re/S/2000/CPCSEA).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- 7.Dick IP, Scott RC. Pig ear skin as an in-vitro model for human skin permeability. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1992;44(8):640–5. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1992.tb05485.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 10.Joshi V, Brewster D, Colonero P. Transdermal diffusion. In vitro diffusion studies in transdermal research: a synthetic membrane model in place of human skin. Drug Dev Delivery. 2012;12:40–2.Google Scholar
- 18.Mall JP, Patel PC, Verma JN. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic estimation of amphotericin b in dry injection dosage form. Pharm Rev. 2009:141–2.Google Scholar
- 19.Moore JW, Flanner HH. Mathematical comparison of dissolution profiles. Pharm Tech. 1996;20:64–74.Google Scholar
- 20.John H, Barbara DA, David A, Beth A, Steven DB, Vishnu C. Clinical laboratory standard institute. Reference method for broth antifungal susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi. Approved standard, 2nd edition. CLSI document M38-A2 CLSI, Wayne: CLSI; 2008.Google Scholar
- 24.Prasanthi D, Lakshmi PK. Effect of chemical enhancers in transdermal permeation of alfuzosin hydrochloride. ISRN Pharm. 2012;965280Google Scholar
- 30.Kim KJ, Dickson MR, Fane AG, Fell CJ. Electron microscopy in synthetic polymer membrane research. J Microsc. 1991;162(3):403–13. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2818.1991.tb03150.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Weitzman I, Summerbell R. The dermatophytes. Clin Microbiol. 1995;8:240–59.Google Scholar