AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 213–224 | Cite as

Enhanced Ungual Permeation of Terbinafine HCl Delivered Through Liposome-Loaded Nail Lacquer Formulation Optimized by QbD Approach

  • Viral H. Shah
  • Amee Jobanputra
Research Article


The present investigation focused on developing, optimizing, and evaluating a novel liposome-loaded nail lacquer formulation for increasing the transungual permeation flux of terbinafine HCl for efficient treatment of onychomycosis. A three-factor, three-level, Box-Behnken design was employed for optimizing process and formulation parameters of liposomal formulation. Liposomes were formulated by thin film hydration technique followed by sonication. Drug to lipid ratio, sonication amplitude, and sonication time were screened as independent variables while particle size, PDI, entrapment efficiency, and zeta potential were selected as quality attributes for liposomal formulation. Multiple regression analysis was employed to construct a second-order quadratic polynomial equation and contour plots. Design space (overlay plot) was generated to optimize a liposomal system, with software-suggested levels of independent variables that could be transformed to desired responses. The optimized liposome formulation was characterized and dispersed in nail lacquer which was further evaluated for different parameters. Results depicted that the optimized terbinafine HCl-loaded liposome formulation exhibited particle size of 182 nm, PDI of 0.175, zeta potential of −26.8 mV, and entrapment efficiency of 80%. Transungual permeability flux of terbinafine HCl through liposome-dispersed nail lacquer formulation was observed to be significantly higher in comparison to nail lacquer with a permeation enhancer. The developed formulation was also observed to be as efficient as pure drug dispersion in its antifungal activity. Thus, it was concluded that the developed formulation can serve as an efficient tool for enhancing the permeability of terbinafine HCl across human nail plate thereby improving its therapeutic efficiency.


liposomes nail lacquer onychomycosis transungual QbD 


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Drug Discovery Lab, Department of PharmaceuticsNational Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER)-AhmedabadGandhinagarIndia

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