The present study aimed for in vitro-in vivo-in silico simulation studies of experimentally designed (32-factorial) Capmul PG-8-cored, Eudragit RSPO-Lutrol F 127 nanocapsules to ferry felodipine using GastroPlus™. The in silico parameter sensitivity analysis for pharmacokinetic parameters was initially assessed to justify the preparation of felodipine-loaded nanocapsules (FLNs) with enhanced solubility to overcome the bioavailability issues of felodipine. The overall integrated desirability ranged between 0.8187 and 0.9488 for three optimized FLNs when analyzed for mean particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro dissolution parameters. The morphological evaluation (SEM, TEM, and AFM) demonstrated spherical nanoparticles (200–300 nm). Validated LC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated enhanced relative bioavailability (13.37-fold) of optimized FLN as compared to suspension. The simulated regional absorption of the FLN presented significant absorption from the cecum (26.3%) and ascending colon (20.1%) with overall absorption of 67.4% from the GIT tract. Furthermore, in vitro-in vivo correlation demonstrated the Wagner-Nelson method as the preferred model as compared to mechanistic and numerical deconvolution on the basis of least mean absolute prediction error, least standard error of prediction, least mean absolute error, and maximum correlation coefficient (r 2 = 0.920). The study demonstrated enhanced oral absorption of felodipine-loaded nanocapsules, and GastroPlus™ was found to be an efficient simulation tool for in vitro-in vivo-in silico simulations.
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The authors thank the Vice Chancellor of the Birla Institute of Technology for providing the facilities and acknowledge the Birla Institute of Technology for providing the senior research fellowship and the Department of Biotechnology (BT/PR5653/MED/29/561/2012) for the research facility generated. Sandeep Kumar Singh acknowledges the Pukyong National University (National Research Foundation of Korea, Ministry of Education; 2012R1A6A1028677), Busan, South Korea, for providing the postdoctoral fellowship and BIT Mesra for granting the study leave.
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Geroge, J.K., Verma, P.R.P., Venkatesan, J. et al. Studies on Core-Shell Nanocapsules of Felodipine: In Vitro-In Vivo Evaluations. AAPS PharmSciTech 18, 2871–2888 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-017-0770-9
- factorial design
- in silico-in vitro-in vivo simulation