AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 223–233 | Cite as

Targeting Therapeutics Across the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB), Prerequisite Towards Thrombolytic Therapy for Cerebrovascular Disorders—an Overview and Advancements

Review Article

ABSTRACT

Cerebral tissues possess highly selective and dynamic protection known as blood brain barrier (BBB) that regulates brain homeostasis and provides protection against invading pathogens and various chemicals including drug molecules. Such natural protection strictly monitors entry of drug molecules often required for the management of several diseases and disorders including cerebral vascular and neurological disorders. However, in recent times, the ischemic cerebrovascular disease and clinical manifestation of acute arterial thrombosis are the most common causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The management of cerebral Ischemia requires immediate infusion of external thrombolytic into systemic circulation and must cross the blood brain barrier. The major challenge with available thrombolytic is their poor affinity towards the blood brain barrier and cerebral tissue subsequently. In the clinical practice, a high dose of thrombolytic often prescribed to deliver drugs across the blood brain barrier which results in drug dependent toxicity leading to damage of neuronal tissues. In recent times, more emphasis was given to utilize blood brain barrier transport mechanism to deliver drugs in neuronal tissue. The blood brain barrier expresses a series of receptor on membrane became an ideal target for selective drug delivery. In this review, the author has given more emphasis molecular biology of receptor on blood brain barrier and their potential as a carrier for drug molecules to cerebral tissues. Further, the use of nanoscale design and real-time monitoring for developed therapeutic to encounter drug dependent toxicity has been reviewed in this study.

KEY WORDS

blood brain barrier (BBB) cerebral ischemic disorders drug delivery earthworm protease neurodegenerative disorder thrombolytic 

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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyRV R & JC College of Engineering (A)GunturIndia
  2. 2.Center for Bioseparation TechnologyVIT UniversityVelloreIndia

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