Polymeric materials are often used in pharmaceutical packaging, delivery systems, and manufacturing components. There is continued concern that chemical entities from polymeric components may leach into various dosage forms, particularly those that are comprised of liquids such as parenterals, injectables, ophthalmics, and inhalation products. In some cases, polymeric components are subjected to routine extractables testing as a control measure. To reduce the risk of discovering leachables during stability studies late in the development process, or components that may fail extractables release criteria, it is proposed that extractables testing on polymer resins may be useful as a screening tool. Two studies have been performed to evaluate whether the extractables profile generated from a polymer resin is representative of the extractables profile of components made from that same resin. The ELSIE Consortium pilot program examined polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene, and another study evaluated polypropylene and a copolymer of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. The test materials were comprised of polymer resin and processed resin or molded components. Volatile, semi-volatile, and nonvolatile chemical profiles were evaluated after headspace sampling and extraction with solvents of varying polarity and pH. The findings from these studies indicate that there may or may not be differences between extractables profiles obtained from resins and processed forms of the resin depending on the type of material, the compounds of interest, and extraction conditions used. Extractables testing of polymer resins is useful for material screening and in certain situations may replace routine component testing.
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The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the material suppliers, contract manufacturers, Bespak and The Tech Group, and the extensive work of the contract labs that performed the experiments: Toxikon Corp., PPD, Aspen Research Corp., Hall Analytical Laboratories, Chemic Laboratories, Inc., West Pharmaceutical Services, Intertek, and Catalent Pharma Solutions. The efforts of ELSIE Materials working group members who compiled the results are much appreciated.
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Stults, C.L.M., Ansell, J.M., Shaw, A.J. et al. Evaluation of Extractables in Processed and Unprocessed Polymer Materials Used for Pharmaceutical Applications. AAPS PharmSciTech 16, 150–164 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-014-0188-6