Controlled Ion Release from Novel Polyester/Ceramic Composites Enhances Osteoinductivity
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Due to the growing number of patients suffering from musculoskeletal defects and the limited supply of and sub-optimal outcomes associated with biological graft materials, novel biomaterials must be created that can function as graft substitutes. For bone regeneration, composite materials that mimic the organic and inorganic phases of natural bone can provide cues which expedite and enhance endogenous repair. Specifically, recent research has shown that calcium and phosphate ions are inherently osteoinductive, so controllably delivering their release holds significant promise for this field. In this study, unique aliphatic polyesters were synthesized and complexed with a rapidly decomposing ceramic (monobasic calcium phosphate, MCP) yielding novel polymer/ceramic composite biomaterials. It was discovered that the fast dissolution and rapid burst release of ions from MCP could be modulated depending on polymer length and chemistry. Also, controlled ion release was found to moderate solution pH associated with polyester degradation. When composite biomaterials were incubated with mesenchymal stems cells (MSCs) they were found to better facilitate osteogenic differentiation than the individual components as evidenced by increased alkaline phosphate expression and more rapid mineralization. These results indicate that controlling calcium and phosphate ion release via a polyester matrix is a promising approach for bone regenerative engineering.
KEY WORDScalcium/phosphate ions mesenchymal stem cells monobasic calcium phosphate osteoinduction polyesters
The authors gratefully acknowledge support from start-up funds provided by the University of Missouri. We also thank the Jost Chemical Company for providing the monobasic calcium phosphate and specifically Jerry Jost, Doug Jost, and Joe Hardimon for valuable discussion regarding this research. AJG and BNA thank the Discovery Fellows Program at the University of Missouri for their support.
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