The AAPS Journal

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 195–218 | Cite as

Therapeutic Roles of Curcumin: Lessons Learned from Clinical Trials

  • Subash C. Gupta
  • Sridevi Patchva
  • Bharat B. AggarwalEmail author
Review Article


Extensive research over the past half century has shown that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of the golden spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), can modulate multiple cell signaling pathways. Extensive clinical trials over the past quarter century have addressed the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of this nutraceutical against numerous diseases in humans. Some promising effects have been observed in patients with various pro-inflammatory diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, uveitis, ulcerative proctitis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel disease, tropical pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, gastric ulcer, idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor, oral lichen planus, gastric inflammation, vitiligo, psoriasis, acute coronary syndrome, atherosclerosis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic microangiopathy, lupus nephritis, renal conditions, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, β-thalassemia, biliary dyskinesia, Dejerine-Sottas disease, cholecystitis, and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Curcumin has also shown protection against hepatic conditions, chronic arsenic exposure, and alcohol intoxication. Dose-escalating studies have indicated the safety of curcumin at doses as high as 12 g/day over 3 months. Curcumin’s pleiotropic activities emanate from its ability to modulate numerous signaling molecules such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic proteins, NF–κB, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-LOX, STAT3, C-reactive protein, prostaglandin E2, prostate-specific antigen, adhesion molecules, phosphorylase kinase, transforming growth factor-β, triglyceride, ET-1, creatinine, HO-1, AST, and ALT in human participants. In clinical trials, curcumin has been used either alone or in combination with other agents. Various formulations of curcumin, including nanoparticles, liposomal encapsulation, emulsions, capsules, tablets, and powder, have been examined. In this review, we discuss in detail the various human diseases in which the effect of curcumin has been investigated.

Key words

clinical trial curcumin human diseases inflammation safety 



We thank Michael Worley, Tamara K. Locke and the Department of Scientific Publications for carefully editing the manuscript and providing valuable comments. Dr. Aggarwal is the Ransom Horne, Jr., Professor of Cancer Research.


  1. 1.
    Frantz S. Drug discovery: playing dirty. Nature. 2005;437(7061):942–3. doi: 10.1038/437942a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mencher SK, Wang LG. Promiscuous drugs compared to selective drugs (promiscuity can be a virtue). BMC Clin Pharmacol. 2005;5(1):3. doi: 10.1186/1472-6904-5-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vogel A, Pelletier J. Examen chimique de la racine de Curcuma. J Pharm. 1815;1:289–300.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gupta SC, Patchva S, Koh W, Aggarwal BB. Discovery of curcumin, a component of golden spice, and its miraculous biological activities. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2012;39(3):283–99. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2011.05648.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schraufstatter E, Bernt H. Antibacterial action of curcumin and related compounds. Nature. 1949;164(4167):456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aggarwal BB, Sung B. Pharmacological basis for the role of curcumin in chronic diseases: an age-old spice with modern targets. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009;30(2):85–94. doi: 10.1016/ Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aggarwal BB, Harikumar KB. Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41(1):40–59. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2008.06.010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gupta SC, Prasad S, Kim JH, Patchva S, Webb LJ, Priyadarsini IK, et al. Multitargeting by curcumin as revealed by molecular interaction studies. Nat Prod Rep. 2011;28(12):1937–55. doi: 10.1039/c1np00051a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Loeber CC. De curcuma officinarum. diss Inaug Halae. 1748.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Oppenheimer A. Turmeric (curcumin) in biliary diseases. Lancet. 1937;229:619–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kanai M, Yoshimura K, Asada M, Imaizumi A, Suzuki C, Matsumoto S, et al. A phase I/II study of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy plus curcumin for patients with gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011;68(1):157–64. doi: 10.1007/s00280-010-1470-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dhillon N, Aggarwal BB, Newman RA, Wolff RA, Kunnumakkara AB, Abbruzzese JL, et al. Phase II trial of curcumin in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14(14):4491–9. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-0024.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sharma RA, McLelland HR, Hill KA, Ireson CR, Euden SA, Manson MM, et al. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study of oral Curcuma extract in patients with colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2001;7(7):1894–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sharma RA, Euden SA, Platton SL, Cooke DN, Shafayat A, Hewitt HR, et al. Phase I clinical trial of oral curcumin: biomarkers of systemic activity and compliance. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(20):6847–54. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Garcea G, Berry DP, Jones DJ, Singh R, Dennison AR, Farmer PB, et al. Consumption of the putative chemopreventive agent curcumin by cancer patients: assessment of curcumin levels in the colorectum and their pharmacodynamic consequences. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(1):120–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cruz-Correa M, Shoskes DA, Sanchez P, Zhao R, Hylind LM, Wexner SD, et al. Combination treatment with curcumin and quercetin of adenomas in familial adenomatous polyposis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4(8):1035–8. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2006.03.020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carroll RE, Benya RV, Turgeon DK, Vareed S, Neuman M, Rodriguez L, et al. Phase IIa clinical trial of curcumin for the prevention of colorectal neoplasia. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4(3):354–64. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    He ZY, Shi CB, Wen H, Li FL, Wang BL, Wang J. Upregulation of p53 expression in patients with colorectal cancer by administration of curcumin. Cancer Investig. 2011;29(3):208–13. doi: 10.3109/07357907.2010.550592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Durgaprasad S, Pai CG, Vasanthkumar, Alvres JF, Namitha S. A pilot study of the antioxidant effect of curcumin in tropical pancreatitis. Indian J Med Res. 2005;122(4):315–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Epelbaum R, Schaffer M, Vizel B, Badmaev V, Bar-Sela G. Curcumin and gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62(8):1137–41. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2010.513802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bayet-Robert M, Kwiatkowski F, Leheurteur M, Gachon F, Planchat E, Abrial C, et al. Phase I dose escalation trial of docetaxel plus curcumin in patients with advanced and metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010;9(1):8–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ide H, Tokiwa S, Sakamaki K, Nishio K, Isotani S, Muto S, et al. Combined inhibitory effects of soy isoflavones and curcumin on the production of prostate-specific antigen. Prostate. 2010;70(10):1127–33. doi: 10.1002/pros.21147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Golombick T, Diamond TH, Badmaev V, Manoharan A, Ramakrishna R. The potential role of curcumin in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undefined significance–its effect on paraproteinemia and the urinary N-telopeptide of type I collagen bone turnover marker. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15(18):5917–22. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-2217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vadhan-Raj S, Weber D, Wang M, Giralt S, Alexanian R, Thomas S, et al. Curcumin downregulates NF-КB and related genes in patients with multiple myeloma: results of a phase 1/2 study. Blood. 2007;110(11):357a.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Polasa K, Raghuram TC, Krishna TP, Krishnaswamy K. Effect of turmeric on urinary mutagens in smokers. Mutagenesis. 1992;7(2):107–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kuttan R, Sudheeran PC, Josph CD. Turmeric and curcumin as topical agents in cancer therapy. Tumori. 1987;73(1):29–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hastak K, Lubri N, Jakhi SD, More C, John A, Ghaisas SD, et al. Effect of turmeric oil and turmeric oleoresin on cytogenetic damage in patients suffering from oral submucous fibrosis. Cancer Lett. 1997;116(2):265–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cheng AL, Hsu CH, Lin JK, Hsu MM, Ho YF, Shen TS, et al. Phase I clinical trial of curcumin, a chemopreventive agent, in patients with high-risk or pre-malignant lesions. Anticancer Res. 2001;21(4B):2895–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chainani-Wu N, Silverman Jr S, Reingold A, Bostrom A, Mc Culloch C, Lozada-Nur F, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of curcuminoids in oral lichen planus. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(7–8):437–46. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2007.05.003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rai B, Kaur J, Jacobs R, Singh J. Possible action mechanism for curcumin in pre-cancerous lesions based on serum and salivary markers of oxidative stress. J Oral Sci. 2010;52(2):251–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim SG, Veena MS, Basak SK, Han E, Tajima T, Gjertson DW, et al. Curcumin treatment suppresses IKKbeta kinase activity of salivary cells of patients with head and neck cancer: a pilot study. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17(18):5953–61. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-1272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Holt PR, Katz S, Kirshoff R. Curcumin therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50(11):2191–3. doi: 10.1007/s10620-005-3032-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hanai H, Iida T, Takeuchi K, Watanabe F, Maruyama Y, Andoh A, et al. Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4(12):1502–6. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2006.08.008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lahiff C, Moss AC. Curcumin for clinical and endoscopic remission in ulcerative colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17(7):E66. doi: 10.1002/ibd.21710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Epstein J, Docena G, MacDonald TT, Sanderson IR. Curcumin suppresses p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, reduces IL-1beta and matrix metalloproteinase-3 and enhances IL-10 in the mucosa of children and adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(6):824–32. doi: 10.1017/S0007114509992510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bundy R, Walker AF, Middleton RW, Booth J. Turmeric extract may improve irritable bowel syndrome symptomology in otherwise healthy adults: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10(6):1015–8. doi: 10.1089/acm.2004.10.1015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shimouchi A, Nose K, Takaoka M, Hayashi H, Kondo T. Effect of dietary turmeric on breath hydrogen. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54(8):1725–9. doi: 10.1007/s10620-008-0550-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Deodhar SD, Sethi R, Srimal RC. Preliminary study on antirheumatic activity of curcumin (diferuloyl methane). Indian J Med Res. 1980;71:632–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chandran B, Goel A. A randomized, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Phytother Res. 2012;26(11):1719–25. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4639.
  40. 40.
    Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Dugall M, Pellegrini L, Ledda A, Grossi MG, et al. Product-evaluation registry of Meriva(R), a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, for the complementary management of osteoarthritis. Panminerva Med. 2010;52(2 Suppl 1):55–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Dugall M, Pellegrini L, Ledda A, Grossi MG, et al. Efficacy and safety of Meriva(R), a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients. Altern Med Rev. 2010;15(4):337–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lal B, Kapoor AK, Asthana OP, Agrawal PK, Prasad R, Kumar P, et al. Efficacy of curcumin in the management of chronic anterior uveitis. Phytother Res. 1999;13(4):318–22. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199906)13:4<318::AID-PTR445>3.0.CO;2-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Allegri P, Mastromarino A, Neri P. Management of chronic anterior uveitis relapses: efficacy of oral phospholipidic curcumin treatment. Long-term follow-up. Clin Ophthalmol. 2010;4:1201–6. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S13271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Satoskar RR, Shah SJ, Shenoy SG. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) in patients with postoperative inflammation. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1986;24(12):651–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kositchaiwat C, Kositchaiwat S, Havanondha J. Curcuma longa Linn. in the treatment of gastric ulcer comparison to liquid antacid: a controlled clinical trial. J Med Assoc Thail. 1993;76(11):601–5.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Prucksunand C, Indrasukhsri B, Leethochawalit M, Hungspreugs K. Phase II clinical trial on effect of the long turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn) on healing of peptic ulcer. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2001;32(1):208–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Di Mario F, Cavallaro LG, Nouvenne A, Stefani N, Cavestro GM, Iori V, et al. A curcumin-based 1-week triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection: something to learn from failure? Helicobacter. 2007;12(3):238–43. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-5378.2007.00497.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Koosirirat C, Linpisarn S, Changsom D, Chawansuntati K, Wipasa J. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory effect of Curcuma longa in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10(7):815–8. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2010.04.021 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lal B, Kapoor AK, Agrawal PK, Asthana OP, Srimal RC. Role of curcumin in idiopathic inflammatory orbital pseudotumours. Phytother Res. 2000;14(6):443–7. doi:10.1002/1099-1573(200009)14:6<443::AID-PTR619>3.0.CO;2-V.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Asawanonda P, Klahan SO. Tetrahydrocurcuminoid cream plus targeted narrowband UVB phototherapy for vitiligo: a preliminary randomized controlled study. Photomed Laser Surg. 2010;28(5):679–84. doi: 10.1089/pho.2009.2637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Heng MC, Song MK, Harker J, Heng MK. Drug-induced suppression of phosphorylase kinase activity correlates with resolution of psoriasis as assessed by clinical, histological and immunohistochemical parameters. Br J Dermatol. 2000;143(5):937–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kurd SK, Smith N, VanVoorhees A, Troxel AB, Badmaev V, Seykora JT, et al. Oral curcumin in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis vulgaris: a prospective clinical trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58(4):625–31. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2007.12.035.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Burns J, Joseph PD, Rose KJ, Ryan MM, Ouvrier RA. Effect of oral curcumin on Dejerine-Sottas disease. Pediatr Neurol. 2009;41(4):305–8. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2009.04.030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ringman JM, Frautschy SA, Cole GM, Masterman DL, Cummings JL. A potential role of the curry spice curcumin in Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2005;2(2):131–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Baum L, Lam CW, Cheung SK, Kwok T, Lui V, Tsoh J, et al. Six-month randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot clinical trial of curcumin in patients with Alzheimer disease. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28(1):110–3. doi: 10.1097/jcp.0b013e318160862c PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Alwi I, Santoso T, Suyono S, Sutrisna B, Suyatna FD, Kresno SB, et al. The effect of curcumin on lipid level in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Acta Med Indones. 2008;40(4):201–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Soni KB, Kuttan R. Effect of oral curcumin administration on serum peroxides and cholesterol levels in human volunteers. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1992;36(4):273–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Srinivasan M. Effect of curcumin on blood sugar as seen in a diabetic subject. Indian J Med Sci. 1972;26(4):269–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Usharani P, Mateen AA, Naidu MU, Raju YS, Chandra N. Effect of NCB-02, atorvastatin and placebo on endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 8-week study. Drugs R D. 2008;9(4):243–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wickenberg J, Ingemansson SL, Hlebowicz J. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects. Nutr J. 2010;9:43. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-9-43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chuengsamarn S, Rattanamongkolgul S, Luechapudiporn R, Phisalaphong C, Jirawatnotai S. Curcumin extract for prevention of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(11):2121–7. doi: 10.2337/dc12-0116.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Khajehdehi P, Pakfetrat M, Javidnia K, Azad F, Malekmakan L, Nasab MH, et al. Oral supplementation of turmeric attenuates proteinuria, transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-8 levels in patients with overt type 2 diabetic nephropathy: a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2011;45(5):365–70. doi: 10.3109/00365599.2011.585622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Appendino G, Belcaro G, Cornelli U, Luzzi R, Togni S, Dugall M, et al. Potential role of curcumin phytosome (Meriva) in controlling the evolution of diabetic microangiopathy. A pilot study. Panminerva Med. 2011;53(3 Suppl 1):43–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Khajehdehi P, Zanjaninejad B, Aflaki E, Nazarinia M, Azad F, Malekmakan L, et al. Oral supplementation of turmeric decreases proteinuria, hematuria, and systolic blood pressure in patients suffering from relapsing or refractory lupus nephritis: a randomized and placebo-controlled study. J Ren Nutr. 2012;22(1):50–7. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2011.03.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shoskes D, Lapierre C, Cruz-Correa M, Muruve N, Rosario R, Fromkin B, et al. Beneficial effects of the bioflavonoids curcumin and quercetin on early function in cadaveric renal transplantation: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Transplantation. 2005;80(11):1556–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    James JS. Curcumin: clinical trial finds no antiviral effect. AIDS Treat News. 1996;(no 242):1–2.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kalpravidh RW, Siritanaratkul N, Insain P, Charoensakdi R, Panichkul N, Hatairaktham S, et al. Improvement in oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters in beta-thalassemia/Hb E patients treated with curcuminoids. Clin Biochem. 2010;43(4–5):424–9. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.10.057.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Niederau C, Gopfert E. The effect of chelidonium- and turmeric root extract on upper abdominal pain due to functional disorders of the biliary system. Results from a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Med Klin (Munich). 1999;94(8):425–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rasyid A, Lelo A. The effect of curcumin and placebo on human gall-bladder function: an ultrasound study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1999;13(2):245–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zuccotti GV, Trabattoni D, Morelli M, Borgonovo S, Schneider L, Clerici M. Immune modulation by lactoferrin and curcumin in children with recurrent respiratory infections. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2009;23(2):119–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Adhvaryu MR, Reddy N, Vakharia BC. Prevention of hepatotoxicity due to anti tuberculosis treatment: a novel integrative approach. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(30):4753–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Biswas J, Sinha D, Mukherjee S, Roy S, Siddiqi M, Roy M. Curcumin protects DNA damage in a chronically arsenic-exposed population of West Bengal. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010;29(6):513–24. doi: 10.1177/0960327109359020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sasaki H, Sunagawa Y, Takahashi K, Imaizumi A, Fukuda H, Hashimoto T, et al. Innovative preparation of curcumin for improved oral bioavailability. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(5):660–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cai T, Mazzoli S, Bechi A, Addonisio P, Mondaini N, Pagliai RC, et al. Serenoa repens associated with urtica dioica (ProstaMEV) and curcumin and quercitin (FlogMEV) extracts are able to improve the efficacy of prulifloxacin in bacterial prostatitis patients: results from a prospective randomised study. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;33(6):549–53. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.11.012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Newman RA, Aggarwal BB. Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises. Mol Pharm. 2007;4(6):807–18. doi: 10.1021/mp700113r.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shoba G, Joy D, Joseph T, Majeed M, Rajendran R, Srinivas PS. Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med. 1998;64(4):353–6. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-957450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gota VS, Maru GB, Soni TG, Gandhi TR, Kochar N, Agarwal MG. Safety and pharmacokinetics of a solid lipid curcumin particle formulation in osteosarcoma patients and healthy volunteers. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58(4):2095–9. doi: 10.1021/jf9024807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Cuomo J, Appendino G, Dern AS, Schneider E, McKinnon TP, Brown MJ, et al. Comparative absorption of a standardized curcuminoid mixture and its lecithin formulation. J Nat Prod. 2011;74(4):664–9. doi: 10.1021/np1007262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Antony B, Merina B, Iyer VS, Judy N, Lennertz K, Joyal S. A pilot cross-over study to evaluate human oral bioavailability of BCM-95CG (Biocurcumax), a novel bioenhanced preparation of curcumin. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008;70(4):445–9. doi: 10.4103/0250-474X.44591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Disilvestro RA, Joseph E, Zhao S, Joshua B. Diverse effects of a low dose supplement of lipidated curcumin in healthy middle aged people. Nutr J. 2012;11(1):79. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Goel A, Jhurani S, Aggarwal BB. Multi-targeted therapy by curcumin: how spicy is it? Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52(9):1010–30. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200700354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gupta SC, Kim JH, Prasad S, Aggarwal BB. Regulation of survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of tumor cells through modulation of inflammatory pathways by nutraceuticals. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2010;29(3):405–34. doi: 10.1007/s10555-010-9235-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hariharan D, Saied A, Kocher HM. Analysis of mortality rates for pancreatic cancer across the world. HPB (Oxford). 2008;10(1):58–62. doi: 10.1080/13651820701883148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kyle RA, Rajkumar SV. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma. 2005;6(2):102–14. doi: 10.3816/CLM.2005.n.036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Scully C, Beyli M, Ferreiro MC, Ficarra G, Gill Y, Griffiths M, et al. Update on oral lichen planus: etiopathogenesis and management. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1998;9(1):86–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Aggarwal BB, Vijayalekshmi RV, Sung B. Targeting inflammatory pathways for prevention and therapy of cancer: short-term friend, long-term foe. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15(2):425–30. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-0149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Megraud F, Brassens-Rabbe MP, Denis F, Belbouri A, Hoa DQ. Seroepidemiology of Campylobacter pylori infection in various populations. J Clin Microbiol. 1989;27(8):1870–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Birch-Hirschfeld A. Zur diagnostic and pathologic der orbital tumoren. Ber Dtsch Opthalmol Ges. 1905;32:127–35.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Orcutt JC, Garner A, Henk JM, Wright JE. Treatment of idiopathic inflammatory orbital pseudotumours by radiotherapy. Br J Ophthalmol. 1983;67(9):570–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schallreuter KU, Wood JM, Pittelkow MR, Buttner G, Swanson N, Korner C, et al. Increased monoamine oxidase A activity in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo. Arch Dermatol Res. 1996;288(1):14–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Arca E, Tastan HB, Erbil AH, Sezer E, Koc E, Kurumlu Z. Narrow-band ultraviolet B as monotherapy and in combination with topical calcipotriol in the treatment of vitiligo. J Dermatol. 2006;33(5):338–43. doi: 10.1111/j.1346-8138.2006.00079.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gelfand JM, Neimann AL, Shin DB, Wang X, Margolis DJ, Troxel AB. Risk of myocardial infarction in patients with psoriasis. JAMA. 2006;296(14):1735–41. doi: 10.1001/jama.296.14.1735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Reddy S, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin is a non-competitive and selective inhibitor of phosphorylase kinase. FEBS Lett. 1994;341(1):19–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mattson MP, Rydel RE. Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid ox-tox transducers. Nature. 1996;382(6593):674–5. doi: 10.1038/382674a0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Goyal A, Petersen JL, Mahaffey KW. The evaluation and management of dyslipidemia and impaired glucose metabolism during acute coronary syndromes. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2004;6(4):300–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ross R. Atherosclerosis–an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(2):115–26. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199901143400207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sathyapalan T, Atkin SL. Is there a role for immune and anti-in-flammatory therapy in type 2 diabetes? Minerva Endocrinol. 2011;36(2):147–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Camera A, Hopps E, Caimi G. Diabetic microangiopathy: physiopathological, clinical and therapeutic aspects. Minerva Endocrinol. 2007;32(3):209–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Shoskes DA, Shahed AR, Kim S. Delayed graft function. Influence on outcome and strategies for prevention. Urol Clin N Am. 2001;28(4):721–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Fibach E, Rachmilewitz E. The role of oxidative stress in hemolytic anemia. Curr Mol Med. 2008;8(7):609–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Marzio L. Factors affecting gallbladder motility: drugs. Dig Liver Dis. 2003;35 Suppl 3:S17–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wagenlehner FM, Diemer T, Naber KG, Weidner W. Chronic bacterial prostatitis (NIH type II): diagnosis, therapy and influence on the fertility status. Andrologia. 2008;40(2):100–4. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2007.00827.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Nickel JC, Xiang J. Clinical significance of nontraditional bacterial uropathogens in the management of chronic prostatitis. J Urol. 2008;179(4):1391–5. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2007.11.081.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rodwell C. Curcumin curries favour? Nat Rev Cancer. 2012;12(6):376. doi: 10.1038/nrc3288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lao CD, Ruffin MT, Normolle D, Heath DD, Murray SI, Bailey JM, et al. Dose escalation of a curcuminoid formulation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006;6:10. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-6-10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Subash C. Gupta
    • 1
  • Sridevi Patchva
    • 1
  • Bharat B. Aggarwal
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental TherapeuticsThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations