Parenteral long-acting lipophilic solutions have been used for decades and might in the future be used in the design of depots with tailored delivery characteristics. The present review highlights major factors influencing the in vivo performance of lipophilic solutions. Furthermore, an account is given of the characteristics of employed in vitro release methods with a focus on the “state” of sink condition, the stirring conditions, and the oil–water interfacial area. Finally, the capability of in vitro release data to predict the in vivo performance of drug substances administrated in the form of lipophilic solutions is discussed. It is suggested that as long as the major rate-limiting in vivo release mechanism is governed by the drug partitioning between the oil vehicle and the tissue fluid, the use of in vitro release testing in quality control appears to be realistic. With increasing lipophilicity of the drug substances and longer duration of action, the in vivo drug release process may become more complex. As discussed, practical analytical problems together with the inability of release methods to mimic two or more concomitant in vivo events may constitute severe impediments for establishment of in vitro in vivo correlations.
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Weng Larsen, S., Larsen, C. Critical Factors Influencing the In Vivo Performance of Long-acting Lipophilic Solutions—Impact on In Vitro Release Method Design. AAPS J 11, 762–770 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1208/s12248-009-9153-9
- depot effect
- lipophilic solutions
- in vitro in vivo correlations
- in vitro release methods
- parenteral administration