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The AAPS Journal

, 11:602 | Cite as

Practical Anticipation of Human Efficacious Doses and Pharmacokinetics Using In Vitro and Preclinical In Vivo Data

  • Tycho HeimbachEmail author
  • Suresh B. Lakshminarayana
  • Wenyu Hu
  • Handan He
Research Article Theme: Towards Integrated ADME Prediction: Past, Present, and Future Directions

Abstract

Accurate predictions of human pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profiles are critical in early drug development, as safe, efficacious, and “developable” dosing regimens of promising compounds have to be identified. While advantages of successful integration of preclinical PK/PD data in the “anticipation” of human doses (AHD) have been recognized, pharmaceutical scientists have faced difficulties with practical implementation, especially for PK/PD profile projections of compounds with challenging absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and formulation properties. In this article, practical projection approaches for formulation-dependent human PK/PD parameters and profiles of Biopharmaceutics Classification System classes I-IV drugs based on preclinical data are described. Case examples for “AHD” demonstrate the utility of preclinical and clinical PK/PD modeling for formulation risk identification, lead candidate differentiation, and prediction of clinical outcome. The application of allometric scaling methods and physiologically based pharmacokinetic approaches for clearance or volume of distribution projections is described using GastroPlus™. Methods to enhance prediction confidence such as in vitroin vivo extrapolations in clearance predictions using in vitro microsomal data are discussed. Examples for integration of clinical PK/PD and formulation data from frontrunner compounds via “reverse pharmacology strategies” that minimize uncertainty with PK/PD predictions are included. The use of integrated softwares such as GastroPlus™ in combination with established PK projection methods allow the projection of formulation-dependent preclinical and human PK/PD profiles required for compound differentiation and development risk assessments.

Key words

formulation human dose prediction modeling PBPK PK/PD 

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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tycho Heimbach
    • 1
    Email author
  • Suresh B. Lakshminarayana
    • 2
  • Wenyu Hu
    • 1
  • Handan He
    • 1
  1. 1.DMPK—Translational SciencesNovartis Institutes for BioMedical ResearchEast HanoverUSA
  2. 2.Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases LtdSingaporeSingapore

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