AAPS PharmSciTech

, 21:67 | Cite as

Mechanistic Insights of Formulation Approaches for the Treatment of Nail Infection: Conventional and Novel Drug Delivery Approaches

  • Agrawal VikasEmail author
  • Patel Rashmin
  • Patel Mrunali
  • Rahul B. Chavan
  • Thanki Kaushik
Review Article


Onychomycosis is a chronic disorder that is difficult to manage and hard to eradicate with perilous trends to relapse. Due to increased prevalence of HIV, use of immunosuppressant drugs and lifestyle-related factors, population affected with fungal infection of nail (Onychomycosis) happens to increase extensively in last two decades. Modalities available for the treatment of onychomycosis include systemically administered antifungals, mechanical procedures, and topical drug therapy. But the efficacy of the most of approaches to deliver drug at targeted site, i.e., deep-seated infected nail bed is limited due to compact and highly keratinized nail structure. A series of advanced formulation approaches, such as transfersomes, liposomes, nano/micro emulsion, nail lacquers etc., have been attempted to improve the drug penetration into nail plate more efficiently. The manuscript reviews these formulation approaches with their possible mechanisms by which they improve the drug penetration.Comparative analysis of available treatment modalities for onychomycosis has been provided with pros and cons of each alternatives. Additionally, ongoing research about the application of biological materials such as modified cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), plant-derived proteins, and synthetic antimicrobial peptidomimetics have also been explored.

Key words

onychomycosis microemulsion topical drug delivery nail infection nail lacquer 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics, Ramanbhai Patel College of PharmacyCharotar University of Science & Technology (CHARUSAT)AnandIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical ScienceAmneal Pharmaceuticals Pvt. LtdAhmedabadIndia
  3. 3.Section for BiologicsUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

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