A Thermoelectric Device for Coupling Fluid Temperature Regulation During Continuous Skin Sonoporation or Sonophoresis
During skin sonoporation and sonophoresis, time-consuming duty cycles or fluid replacement is often required to mitigate coupling fluid temperature increases. This study demonstrates an alternative method for temperature regulation: a circulating, thermoelectric system. Porcine skin samples were sonoporated continuously for 10 min at one of three intensities (23.8, 34.2, 39.4 W/m2). A caffeine solution was then applied to the skin and left to diffuse for 20 h. During sonoporation, the system was able to maintain the temperature between 10 and 16°C regardless of the intensity. No increase in transdermal transport was achieved with an intensity of 23.8 W/m2. Intensities of 34.2 and 39.4 W/m2 resulted in 3.5-fold (p < 0.05) and 3.7-fold (p < 0.05) increases in mean transport, relative to a control case with no ultrasound. From these results, it is concluded that a significant transport increase can be achieved with a system that circulates and cools the coupling fluid during ultrasound application. Relative to the previous methods of temperature control (duty cycles and fluid replacement), use of this circulation system will lead to significant time savings in future experimental studies.
KEY WORDSskin sonoporation transdermal ultrasound cavitation temperature
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