AAPS PharmSciTech

, 20:9 | Cite as

In vitro SPF and Photostability Assays of Emulsion Containing Nanoparticles with Vegetable Extracts Rich in Flavonoids

  • Letícia Caramori CefaliEmail author
  • Janaína Artem Ataide
  • Samara Eberlin
  • Fernanda Cristina da Silva Gonçalves
  • Ana Rita Fernandes
  • Joana Marto
  • Helena Margarida Ribeiro
  • Mary Ann Foglio
  • Priscila Gava Mazzola
  • Eliana Barbosa SoutoEmail author
Research Article


The aim of study was to determine the in vitro sun protection factor (SPF) and the photostability profile of a topical formulation composed of nanoparticles loaded with vegetable extracts and to assess its physicochemical properties. Chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanoparticles loaded with flavonoids-enriched vegetable extracts (Ginkgo biloba L., Dimorphandra mollis Benth, Ruta graveolens, and Vitis vinifera L.) were produced and characterized for their morphology, mean particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. A final topical formulation was obtained by dispersing chitosan/TPP nanoparticles in an o/w emulsion. Results showed that nanoparticles dispersion exhibited yellowish color, spherical shape, and uniform appearance. Extract-loaded chitosan/TPP nanoparticles showed a mean particle size of 557.11 ± 3.1 nm, polydispersity index of 0.39 ± 0.27, zeta potential of + 11.54 ± 2.1 mV, and encapsulation efficiency of 75.89% of rutin. The recorded texture parameters confirm that the developed formulation is appropriate for skin application. The SPF obtained was 2.3 ± 0.4, with a critical wavelength of 387.0 nm and 0.69 UVA/UVB ratio. The developed formulation exhibited photostability, allowing the release of flavonoids from nanoparticles while retaining rutin into the skin in a higher extension.


flavonoids nanoparticles permeation photostability rutin sunscreen 



The authors acknowledge FAPESP (grant number 2015/25533-7 and 2017/14757-7), CAPES, and CNPq agencies for the financial support of this study. The authors also acknowledge the financial support received from the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (FCT/MCT) and from the European Funds (PRODER/COMPETE) under the project reference M-ERA-NET/0004/2015-PAIRED, co-financed by FEDER, under the Partnership Agreement PT2020.

Author Contribution Statement

LCC—carried out the assays, discussed results, and produced the manuscript.

JAA—carried assays, discussed results, and produced the manuscript.

SE—carried out photostability assay and reviewed the text.

FCdSG—carried out photostability assay and reviewed the text.

ARF—carried out texture assay and reviewed the text.

JM—carried out permeation assay and reviewed the text.

HMR—carried out permeation assay and reviewed the text.

MAF—co-advised students (Ms. Cefali and Ms. Ataide). Participated in plant extraction and identification of flavonoids, results discussion, and manuscript revision.

PGM—advised students (Ms. Cefali and Ms. Ataide), delineating assays, discussing results and producing/reviewing the manuscript. Participated in sun protector factor and antioxidant assays.

EBS—co-advised students (Ms. Cefali and Ms. Ataide). Participated in research outline, sun protector factor assays, results discussion, and manuscript revision.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12249_2018_1217_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 15 kb)


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Letícia Caramori Cefali
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Janaína Artem Ataide
    • 2
    • 3
  • Samara Eberlin
    • 4
  • Fernanda Cristina da Silva Gonçalves
    • 4
  • Ana Rita Fernandes
    • 2
  • Joana Marto
    • 5
  • Helena Margarida Ribeiro
    • 5
  • Mary Ann Foglio
    • 6
  • Priscila Gava Mazzola
    • 6
  • Eliana Barbosa Souto
    • 2
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of BiologyUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP), Cidade Universitária “Zeferino Vaz”CampinasBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of Coimbra (FFUC)CoimbraPortugal
  3. 3.School of Medical SciencesUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP)CampinasBrazil
  4. 4.Kosmoscience GroupCampinasBrazil
  5. 5.Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of Lisbon (UL)LisbonPortugal
  6. 6.Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP)CampinasBrazil
  7. 7.CEB - Centre of Biological EngineeringUniversity of Minho, Campus de GualtarBragaPortugal

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