AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 19, Issue 8, pp 3454–3461 | Cite as

Augmentation of Fluvastatin Cytotoxicity Against Prostate Carcinoma PC3 Cell Line Utilizing Alpha Lipoic–Ellagic Acid Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Formula

  • Usama A. FahmyEmail author
Research Article Theme: Advances in PAT, QbD, and Material Characterization
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Theme: Advances in PAT, QbD, and Material Characterization


Statins are commonly used in the middle-aged and elderly people for treatment of hyperlipidemia. Both alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and ellagic acid (EA) are natural antioxidants found in a normal diet. They can protect against cellular damage and induce cellular apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. Fluvastatin (FLV) was combined with ALA and EA in a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) formula. The prepared NLCs were imaged with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Particle size and zeta potential and FLV entrapment efficiency (%EE) were measured, and the FLV release profile was constructed. Cellular viability, caspase-3 enzyme levels, and cellular cycle were analyzed. The prepared NLCs were spherical, with a size of 85.2 ± 4.1 nm, and had a zeta potential of − 25.1 ± 3.4 mV and a %EE of 98.2 ± 1.1%. FLV IC50 was decreased by half by the formula and by about 30% when compared with the three drugs together. According to cell-cycle analysis, treatment with FLV-ALA-EA NLCs caused a significant increase in pre-G1 phase by about 1.44-fold in comparison with FLV-ALA-EA. These findings demonstrate that ALA and EA induced cell death, which makes their combination with FLV a candidate for prostate cancer therapy.


cancer oncology nanoparticles statins mitochondria 



This work was supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, under grant no. (D-18-166-1438).The author therefore gratefully acknowledges the DSR technical and financial support.

Author Contribution

Usama A. Fahmy supervised the whole project and wrote the manuscript.

Funding Information

This work was supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, under grant no. D-18-166-1438.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of PharmacyKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

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