Apoptosis Induction and Antimigratory Activity of Andrographolide Analog (3A.1)-Incorporated Self-Assembled Nanoparticles in Cancer Cells
Andrographolide analog, namely 19-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-8,17-epoxy andrographolide (or 3A.1) has been reported to be a potential anticancer agent for several types of cancer. Due to its poor aqueous solubility, 3A.1 was incorporated within self-assembly polymeric nanoparticles made of naphthyl-grafted succinyl chitosan (NSC), octyl-grafted succinyl chitosan (OSC), and benzyl-grafted succinyl chitosan (BSC). These 3A.1-loaded nanoparticles were nanosized (< 200 nm) and spherical in shape with a negative surface charge. 3A.1-loaded nanoparticles were produced using a dropping method, which 40% initial drug adding exhibited the highest entrapment efficiency. The release of 3A.1 from the 3A.1-loaded nanoparticles displayed a delayed release pattern. Under acidic conditions (pH 1.2), there was no free drug release. After the pH was adjusted to 6.8, a high cumulative 3A.1 release was obtained which was dependent on the hydrophobic moieties. These 3A.1-loaded pH-sensitive nanoparticles proved to be beneficial for specifically delivering anticancer drugs to the targeted colon cancer sites. In vitro anticancer activity against HT-29 found that the 3A.1-loaded nanoparticles had significantly lower IC50 than that of the free drug and promoted apoptosis. Additionally, in vitro wound-healing migration on HN-22 revealed that free 3A.1 and the 3A.1-loaded nanoparticles inhibited cell motility compared with untreated cells. These pH-sensitive amphiphilic chitosan nanoparticles may be promising nanocarriers for oral anticancer drug delivery to colorectal cancer cells.
KEY WORDSnanoparticles chitosan andrographolide analog colorectal cancer
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Commission of Higher Education (Thailand) and the Thailand Research Fund through the Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program (Grant No.PHD/0077/2558), the International Research Network Fund (IRN58W0004), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC 81561148012) for their financial support.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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