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AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 19, Issue 7, pp 3085–3096 | Cite as

Optimization of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Spray-Dried Microparticles for Pulmonary Delivery Using Design of Experiments

  • Mariela Razuc
  • Juliana Piña
  • María V. Ramírez-Rigo
Research Article
  • 34 Downloads

Abstract

Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic for treatment of pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. The purpose of this work was to rationally study the spray drying of ciprofloxacin in order to identify the formulation and operating conditions that lead to a product with aerodynamic properties appropriate for dry powder inhalation. A 24 − 1 fractional factorial design was applied to investigate the effect of selected variables (i.e., ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) concentration, drying air inlet temperature, feed flow rate, and atomization air flow rate) on several product and process parameters (i.e., particle size, aerodynamic diameter, moisture content, densities, porosity, powder flowability, outlet temperature, and process yield) and to determine an optimal condition. The studied factors had a significant effect on the evaluated responses (higher p value 0.0017), except for the moisture content (p value > 0.05). The optimal formulation and operating conditions were as follows: CIP concentration 10 mg/mL, drying air inlet temperature 110°C, feed volumetric flow rate 3.0 mL/min, and atomization air volumetric flow rate 473 L/h. The product obtained under this set had a particle size that guarantees access to the lung, a moisture content acceptable for dry powder inhalation, fair flowability, and high process yield. The PDRX and SEM analysis of the optimal product showed a crystalline structure and round and dimpled particles. Moreover, the product was obtained by a simple and green spray drying method.

Keywords

ciprofloxacin hydrochloride dry powder inhaler spray drying design of experiments green process 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Lic. F. Cabrera and Dra. A. Di Battista (PLAPIQUI) for their technical assistance and Plastiape (Italy) for kindly supplying the RS01 inhaler device.

Funding Information

Financial support was received from CONICET (PIP 112-2011-0100336112), UNS (PGI 24/B209, PGI 24/M122), and FONCyT (PICT-2014-2421). M. Razuc received financial support from CONICET for her postdoctoral fellowship.

Supplementary material

12249_2018_1137_MOESM1_ESM.docx (131 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 131 kb)

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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariela Razuc
    • 1
    • 2
  • Juliana Piña
    • 2
    • 3
  • María V. Ramírez-Rigo
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y FarmaciaUniversidad Nacional del Sur (UNS)Bahía BlancaArgentina
  2. 2.Planta Piloto de Ingeniería Química (PLAPIQUI), UNS- CONICETBahía BlancaArgentina
  3. 3.Departamento de Ingeniería QuímicaUNSBahía BlancaArgentina

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