Advertisement

AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 19, Issue 7, pp 2908–2920 | Cite as

Medicated Chewing Gums (MCGs): Composition, Production, and Mechanical Testing

  • Turki Al Hagbani
  • Sami Nazzal
Review Article

Abstract

Medicated chewing gums (MCGs) represent a unique platform for drug delivery. They have been defined as solid single-dose preparations, which may contain more than one active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with base consisting primarily of gum that has to be chewed for a certain period of time. They mainly contain a tasteless masticatory gum base as the core with other minor nonmasticatory ingredients, such as flavors and sweeteners. Despite their advantages in drug delivery, MCGs remain a niche product due to the complexity of their formulation, lack of acceptable testing methods, and intricacy of their manufacturing. Few studies have been reported on their use, and most of the information on their composition and production could be found in patent search. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of gum composition, manufacturing process, and characterization. Due to the scarcity of studies concerning the evaluation of the mechanical properties of MCGs, greater emphasis was placed on the available performance tests and procedures for the estimation of their mechanical and textural properties. While very few tests have been recommended by the official pharmacopeias, several tests have been suggested for assessing the mechanical properties of MCGs in vitro. Properties, such as chewiness, elasticity, and firmness, of chewing gums during mastication are imperative quality attributes that have been found to strongly correlate with gum composition and mouth feel.

KEY WORDS

medicated chewing gum mechanical properties textural analysis chewiness gum composition gum production 

References

  1. 1.
    Gutiérrez-López GF, Welti-Chanes J, Parada-Arias E. Food engineering: integrated approaches: Springer; 2008.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Portal TS. Chewing gum market—statistics & facts. 2015 [cited 2018 1 Feb]; Available from: https://www.statista.com/topics/1841/chewing-gum/.
  3. 3.
    Konar N, Palabiyik I, Toker OS, Sagdic O. Chewing gum: production, quality parameters and opportunities for delivering bioactive compounds. Trends Food Sci Technol. 2016;55:29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aslani A, Rostami F. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system. J Res Med Sci. 2015;20(4):403–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rassing MR. Chewing gum as a drug delivery system. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 1994;13(1–2):89–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wadgave U, Nagesh L. Nicotine replacement therapy: an overview. Int J Health Sci. 2016;10(3):425–35.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chaudhary SA, Shahiwala AF. Medicated chewing gum—a potential drug delivery system. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2010;7(7):871–85.  https://doi.org/10.1517/17425247.2010.493554.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kvist C, Andersson SB, Fors S, Wennergren B, Berglund J. Apparatus for studying in vitro drug release from medicated chewing gums. Int J Pharm. 1999;189(1):57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jadhav A, Mohite S. A comprehensive review on: medicated chewing gum. Curr Pharm Res. 2014;4(3):1215.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gajendran J. Performance testing of medicated chewing gums with the goal of establishing in vitro in vivo correlation: Universitätsbibliothek Mainz; 2017.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Andersen T, Gram-Hansen M, Pedersen M, Rassing MR. Chewing gum as a drug delivery system for nystatin influence of solubilising agents upon the release of water insoluble drugs. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 1990;16(13):1985–94.  https://doi.org/10.3109/03639049009023636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mehta F, Trivedi P. Formulation and texture characterization of medicated chewing gum delivery of dimenhydrinate hydrochloride. Pharm Lett. 2011;2:129–40.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morjaria Y, Irwin WJ, Barnett PX, Chan RS, Conway B. In vitro release of nicotine from chewing gum formulations. Dissolut Technol. 2004;11(2):12–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pedersen M, Rassing MR. Miconazole chewing gum as a drug delivery system application of solid dispersion technique and lecithin. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 1990;16(13):2015–30.  https://doi.org/10.3109/03639049009023638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stojanov M, Larsen KL. Cetirizine release from cyclodextrin formulated compressed chewing gum. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2012;38(9):1061–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Swamy N, Shilpa P, Abbas Z. Formulation and characterization of medicated chewing gums of dextromethorphan hydrobromide. Indian Drugs. 2012;49(12):29–35.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tyrpin HT, Russell MP, Witkewitz DL, Johnson SS, Ream RL, Corriveau CL. Caffeine coated chewing gum product and process of making. Google Patents; 2002.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Woodford D, Lesko L. Relative bioavailability of aspirin gum. J Pharm Sci. 1981;70(12):1341–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oliveira CM. Emerging trends in pharmaceutical dosage forms 2015.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Witzel F, Mackay DA, Bakal AI, Clark KW. Long-lasting chewing gum and method. Google Patents; 1980.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koch ER, Glass M. Non-stick bubble gum base composition. Google Patents; 1982.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cherukuri SR, Mansukhani G. Reduced calorie chewing gum base and compositions containing the same. Google Patents; 1989.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cherukuri SR, Friello DR, Ferroti M, Jewell W, D'amelia RP. Gum base, chewing gum containing same and method. Google Patents; 1982.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cherukuri SR, Mansukhani G. Reduced calorie chewing gum base and compositions containing the same. Google Patents; 1991.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jacobsen J, Christrup LL, Jensen N-H. Medicated chewing gum. Am J Drug Deliv. 2004;2(2):75–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stroz JJ, Bakal AI, Mackay DA. Calorie-free non-adhesive chewing gums and method. Google Patents; 1980.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shin TR. Properties of a model zein-based chewing gum investigated by objective and sensory methods: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; 2008.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Athanikar NK, Gubler SA. Process for manufacturing a pharmaceutical chewing gum. Google Patents; 2001.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gubler SA. Process for preparing chewing gum containing a nutritional supplement. Google Patents; 2003.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Koch ER, Abbazia LP, Puglia WJ. Process for preparing chewing gum base using solid elastomer. Google Patents; 1980.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Merritt CG, Wingerd WH, Keller DJ. Process for preparing a time delayed release flavorant and an improved flavored chewing gum composition. Google Patents; 1983.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mochizuki K, Yokomichi F. Process for the preparation of chewing gum. Google Patents; 1976.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wei YC, Cherukuri SR, Hriscisce F, Piccolo DJ, Bilka KP. Elastomer encapsulation of flavors and sweeteners, long lasting flavored chewing gum compositions based thereon and process of preparation. Google Patents; 1986.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    FDA U, Food, Administration D. CFR-code of federal regulations title 21. Food and Drug. 2013.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bhowmick AK, Stephens H. Handbook of elastomers: CRC; 2000.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lebedeva NWOV. Polyisobutene-based pressure-sensitive adhesives. Technology of Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives and Products. 2008.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Walker J. Elastomer engineering guide. Sheffield: IST; 2012.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Potineni RV. Mechanisms of flavor release and perception in sugar-free chewing gum: The Pennsylvania State University; 2007.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fink JK. Reactive polymers: fundamentals and applications: a concise guide to industrial polymers: William Andrew; 2017.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tisdale E, Wilkins C. Method development for compositional analysis of low molecular weight poly (vinyl acetate) by matrix-assisted/laser desorption-mass spectrometry and its application to analysis of chewing gum. Anal Chim Acta. 2014;820:92–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Potineni RV, Peterson DG. Influence of flavor solvent on flavor release and perception in sugar-free chewing gum. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(9):3254–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yatka RJ, Broderick KB, Song JH, Zibell SE, Record DW. Polyvinyl acetate encapsulation of crystalline sucralose for use in chewing gum. Google Patents; 1992.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    D'Sa AB, Group IoCP. Adhesives and consolidants in painting conservation: archetype publications; 2012.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Khairnar DA, Darekar AB, Saudagar RB. Medicated chewing gum is an excellent drug delivery system for self medication. Asian J Pharm Technol. 2016;6(1):24–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hasenhuettl GL, Hartel RW. Food emulsifiers and their applications: Springer; 2008.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gaonkar AG, McPherson A. Ingredient interactions: effects on food quality: CRC; 2016.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Weyland M, Hartel RW. Emulsifiers in confectionery. Food emulsifiers and their applications: Springer; 2008. p. 285–305.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dokuzovic Z. Flavor emulsions and chewing gum compositions containing the same. Google Patents; 1988.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mark H. Encyclopedia of polymer science and technology, 15 volume set: Wiley; 2014.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Abdel-Malik MM, Vishwanathan A, Orama AM. Non-stick chewing gum base. Google Patents; 2003.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jójárt I. The importance of magnesium stearate in pharmaceutical industry and in the preformulation studies of medicated chewing gums: szte; 2014.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Synosky S, Reed MA. Wax-free chewing gum base. Google Patents; 1994.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wessel SW, van der Mei HC, Maitra A, Dodds MW, Busscher HJ. Potential benefits of chewing gum for the delivery of oral therapeutics and its possible role in oral healthcare. Exp Opin Drug Deliv. 2016;13(10):1421–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rathbone MJ, Hadgraft J, Roberts MS. Modified-release drug delivery technology: CRC; 2002.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gaonkar AG, Vasisht N, Khare AR, Sobel R. Microencapsulation in the food industry: a practical implementation guide: Elsevier; 2014.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hartel RW, Joachim H, Hofberger R. Confectionery science and technology: Springer; 2018.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pothakamury UR, Barbosa-Cánovas GV. Fundamental aspects of controlled release in foods. Trends Food Sci Technol. 1995;6(12):397–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gibbs BF, Kermasha S, Alli I, Mulligan CN. Encapsulation in the food industry: a review. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 1999;50(3):213–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chattopadhyay S, Raychaudhuri U, Chakraborty R. Artificial sweeteners—a review. J Food Sci Technol. 2014;51(4):611–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Knebl LF, Lewis R, Wen YF. Moist chewing gum composition. Google Patents; 1988.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wolf FR, McGrew GN, Hook JS, Richey LC, Witkewitz DL, Tyrpin HT. Chewing gum containing physiological cooling agents. Google Patents; 2003.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Potineni RV, Peterson DG. Mechanisms of flavor release in chewing gum: cinnamaldehyde. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(9):3260–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mehta FF, Trivedi P. Formulation and characterization of biodegradable medicated chewing gum delivery system for motion sickness using corn zein as gum former. Trop J Pharm Res. 2015;14(5):753–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kása P, Jójárt I, Kelemen A, Pintye-Hódi K. Formulation study of directly compressible chewable polymers containing ascorbic acid. Pharm Dev Technol. 2013;18(2):384–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hedges AR. Industrial applications of cyclodextrins. Chem Rev. 1998;98(5):2035–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Brewster ME, Loftsson T. Cyclodextrins as pharmaceutical solubilizers. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2007;59(7):645–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Yoshii H, Sakane A, Kawamura D, Neoh TL, Kajiwara H, Furuta T. Release kinetics of (−)-menthol from chewing gum. J Incl Phenom Macrocycl Chem. 2007;57(1–4):591–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jacobsen J, Bjerregaard S, Pedersen M. Cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of antimycotics intended to act in the oral cavity–drug supersaturation, toxicity on TR146 cells and release from a delivery system. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 1999;48(3):217–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Guo X, Chang RK, Hussain MA. Ion-exchange resins as drug delivery carriers. J Pharm Sci. 2009;98(11):3886–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Belmar J, Ribé M. Eye on excipients. Barcelona: Health in Gum by Cafosa; 2013.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jójárt I, Kelemen A, Kása P Jr, Pintye-Hódi K. Tracking of the post-compressional behaviour of chewing gum tablets. Compos Part B. 2013;49:1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pharmacopoeia E. General monograph on dosage foms: chewing gum, medicated. European directorate for the quality of medicines. 8th ed: Council of Europe; 2014. p. 781.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pharmacopoeia E. General monograph on dissolution test for medicated chewing gums. European directorate for the quality of medicines. 8th ed: Council of Europe; 2014. p. 325.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Al Hagbani T, Nazzal S. Development of post-compressional textural tests to evaluate the mechanical properties of medicated chewing gum tablets with high drug loadings. J Texture Stud. 2017;Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bourne M. Texture, viscosity, and food. In: Food texture and viscosity: concept and measurement: Elsevier; 2002.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Paradkar M, Gajra B, Patel B. Formulation development and evaluation of medicated chewing gum of anti-emetic drug. Saudi Pharm J. 2016;24(2):153–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Shete RB, Muniswamy VJ, Pandit AP, Khandelwal KR. Formulation of eco-friendly medicated chewing gum to prevent motion sickness. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2015;16(5):1041–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kása P, Bajdik J, Zsigmond Z, Pintye-Hódi K. Study of the compaction behaviour and compressibility of binary mixtures of some pharmaceutical excipients during direct compression. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif. 2009;48(4):859–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Aslani A, Ghannadi A, Khalafi Z. Design, formulation and evaluation of green tea chewing gum. Adv Biomed Res. 2014;3:141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Aslani A, Ghannadi A, Rostami F. Design, formulation, and evaluation of ginger medicated chewing gum. Adv Biomed Res. 2016;5:130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Azarmi S, Roa W, Löbenberg R. Current perspectives in dissolution testing of conventional and novel dosage forms. Int J Pharm. 2007;328(1):12–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Commission EP, Medicines EDftQo, Healthcare. European Pharmacopoeia: Council of Europe; 2010.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rider JN, Brunson EL, Chambliss WG, Cleary RW, Hikal AH, Rider PH, et al. Development and evaluation of a novel dissolution apparatus for medicated chewing gum products. Pharm Res. 1992;9(2):255–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Convention USP. General monographs: nicotine polacrilex gum. USP 40-NF 35: United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Incorporated; 2017. p. 2751.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gajendran J, Kraemer J, Langguth P. In vivo predictive release methods for medicated chewing gums. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2012;33(7):417–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Na DH, Faraj J, Capan Y, Leung KP, DeLuca PP. Chewing gum of antimicrobial decapeptide (KSL) as a sustained antiplaque agent: preformulation study. J Control Release. 2005;107(1):122–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Faraj JA, Dorati R, Schoubben A, Worthen D, Selmin F, Capan Y, et al. Development of a peptide-containing chewing gum as a sustained release antiplaque antimicrobial delivery system. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2007;8(1):E177–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Al-Ghananeem AM, Leung KP, Faraj J, DeLuca PP. Development of a sustained antiplaque and antimicrobial chewing gum of a decapeptide. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2017;18(6):2240–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of PharmacyUniversity of Louisiana at MonroeMonroeUSA
  2. 2.College of PharmacyHail UniversityHailSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.School of PharmacyTexas Tech University Health Sciences CenterDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations