Advertisement

AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 19, Issue 6, pp 2740–2749 | Cite as

The Effects of Curing and Casting Methods on the Physicochemical Properties of Polymer Films

  • Yingjian Li
  • Dale Eric Wurster
Research Article
  • 59 Downloads

Abstract

Most film coatings in the pharmaceutical industry are prepared using organic solvents or aqueous solvents. Due to different film-formation mechanisms, their properties are significantly different from each other. Curing can alter the microstructure of films by improving the coalescence of polymer particles for aqueous dispersion-based films or accelerating macromolecule relaxation for organic solvent-based films. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of preparation methods and curing on the physicochemical properties of Kollicoat® SR30D and Kollicoat® MAE100P films. The film’s properties, including water diffusion coefficient, mechanical properties, plasticizer loss, swelling behavior, and contact angle, were measured for uncured or cured aqueous dispersion-based or organic solvent-based films. The results indicated that curing decreased water diffusivities in films and increased film’s tensile strength. Curing resulted in plasticizer loss from SR30D films but not from MAE100P films due to strong interaction between plasticizer and MAE100P. The surface of organic solvent-based films was more hydrophobic than that of aqueous dispersion-based films. The contact angle of organic solvent-based films was increased after curing possibly because curing decreased roughness of the film surface. Organic solvent-based SR30D films had better mechanical properties than the corresponding aqueous dispersion-based films because of higher degree of polymer–polymer entanglement in the organic solvent-based films. However, contradictory phenomena were observed in MAE100P films possibly due to a “core-shell” structure reserved in the aqueous dispersion-based MAE100P films. In summary, casting methods and curing have significant impact on the film properties due to different film structures, coalescence, or film relaxation, and other concurrent effects including evaporation of residue solvent and plasticizers.

KEY WORDS

aqueous vs organic curing polymer films physicochemical properties 

References

  1. 1.
    Kucera SA, Felton LA, McGinity JW. Physical aging in pharmaceutical polymers and the effect on solid oral dosage form stability. Int J Pharm. 2013;457(2):428–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hodge IM. Physical aging in polymer glasses. Science. 1995;267(5206):1945–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hay JN. The physical ageing of amorphous and crystalline polymers. Pure Appl Chem. 1995;67(11):1855–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    White JR. Polymer ageing: physics, chemistry or engineering? Time to reflect. Comptes Rendus Chimie. 2006;9(11–12):1396–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hutchinson JM. Physical aging of polymers. Prog Polym Sci. 1995;20(4):703–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hancock BC, Shamblin SL, Zografi G. Molecular mobility of amorphous pharmaceutical solids below their glass transition temperatures. Pharm Res. 1995;12(6):799–806.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sinko CM, Yee AF, Amidon GL. Prediction of physical aging in controlled-release coatings: the application of the relaxation coupling model to glassy cellulose acetate. Pharm Res. 1991;8(6):698–705.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guo JH. Aging processes in pharmaceutical polymers. Pharm Sci Technol Today. 1999;2(12):478–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Meyer E, Jamieson A, Simha R, Palmen J, Booij H, Maurer F. Free volume changes in polyvinyl acetate measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. Polymer. 1990;31(2):243–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rabinovitch EB, Summers JW. The effect of physical aging on properties of rigid polyvinyl chloride. J Vinyl Addit Technol. 1992;14(3):126–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kobayashi Y, Zheng W, Meyer E, McGervey J, Jamieson A, Simha R. Free volume and physical aging of poly (vinyl acetate) studied by positron annihilation. Macromolecules. 1989;22(5):2302–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chow T. Kinetics of free volume and physical aging in polymer glasses. Macromolecules. 1984;17(11):2336–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aref-Azar A, Biddlestone F, Hay J, Haward R. The effect of physical ageing on the properties of poly (ethylene terephthalate). Polymer. 1983;24(10):1245–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McCaig M, Paul DR. Effect of film thickness on the changes in gas permeability of a glassy polyarylate due to physical aging. Part I. Experimental observations. Polymer. 2000;41(2):629–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guo JH, Robertson RE, Amidon GL. Influence of physical aging on mechanical properties of polymer free films: the prediction of long-term aging effects on the water permeability and dissolution rate of polymer film-coated tablets. Pharm Res. 1991;8(12):1500–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gutierrez-Rocca JC, Mcginity JW. Influence of aging on the physical–mechanical properties of acrylic resin films cast from aqueous dispersions and organic solutions. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 1993;19(3):315–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sinko CM, Yee AF, Amidon GL. The effect of physical aging on the dissolution rate of anionic polyelectrolytes. Pharm Res. 1990;7(6):648–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Siepmann J, Siepmann F. Stability of aqueous polymeric controlled release film coatings. Int J Pharm. 2013;457(2):437–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Petereit H-U, Weisbrod W. Formulation and process considerations affecting the stability of solid dosage forms formulated with methacrylate copolymers. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 1999;47(1):15–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bodmeier R, Paeratakul O. The effect of curing on drug release and morphological properties of ethylcellulose pseudolatex-coated beads. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 1994;20(9):1517–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shao ZJ, Morales L, Diaz S, Muhammad NA. Drug release from Kollicoat SR 30D-coated nonpareil beads: evaluation of coating level, plasticizer type, and curing condition. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2002;3(2):87–96.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wesseling M, Bodmeier R. Drug release from beads coated with an aqueous colloidal ethylcellulose dispersion, Aquacoat®, or an organic ethylcellulose solution. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 1999;47(1):33–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wurster DE, Bhattacharjya S, Flanagan DR. Effect of curing on water diffusivities in acrylate free films as measured via a sorption technique. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2007;8(3):E152–E7.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hutchings D, Kuzmak B, Sakr A. Processing considerations for an EC latex coating system: influence of curing time and temperature. Pharm Res. 1994;11(10):1474–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yang Q, Flament M, Siepmann F, Busignies V, Leclerc B, Herry C, et al. Curing of aqueous polymeric film coatings: importance of the coating level and type of plasticizer. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2010;74(2):362–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Morkhade DM, Nande VS, Barabde UV, Kamble MU, Patil AT, Joshi SB. A comparative study of aqueous and organic-based films and coatings of PEGylated rosin derivative. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2008;34(1):24–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lecomte F, Siepmann J, Walther M, MacRae RJ, Bodmeier R. Polymer blends used for the coating of multiparticulates: comparison of aqueous and organic coating techniques. Pharm Res. 2004;21(5):882–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bhattacharjya S, Wurster DE. Investigation of the drug release and surface morphological properties of film-coated pellets, and physical, thermal and mechanical properties of free films as a function of various curing conditions. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2008;9(2):449–57.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chen JW, Dai J, Yang JH, Zhang N, Huang T, Wang Y, et al. Annealing induced microstructure and mechanical property changes of impact resistant polypropylene copolymer. Chin J Polym Sci. 2015;33(9):1211–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li Y. Investigation of the effects of curing and casting methods on the physicochemical properties of polymeric coating systems. Iowa City (IA): University of Iowa; 2016.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Felton LA. Mechanisms of polymeric film formation. Int J Pharm. 2013;457(2):423–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thoma K, Bechtold K. Influence of aqueous coatings on the stability of enteric coated pellets and tablets. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 1999;47(1):39–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Suyatma NE, Tighzert L, Copinet A, Coma V. Effects of hydrophilic plasticizers on mechanical, thermal, and surface properties of chitosan films. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(10):3950–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kolter K, Dashevsky A, Irfan M, Bodmeier R. Polyvinyl acetate-based film coatings. Int J Pharm. 2013;457(2):470–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gutiérrez-Rocca J, McGinity JW. Influence of water soluble and insoluble plasticizers on the physical and mechanical properties of acrylic resin copolymers. Int J Pharm. 1994;103(3):293–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nakagami H, Keshikawa T, Matsumura M, Tsukamoto H. Application of aqueous suspensions and latex dispersions of water-insoluble polymers for tablet and granule coatings. Chem Pharm Bull. 1991;39(7):1837–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Audouin L, Dalle B, Metzger G, Verdu J. Thermal aging of plasticized PVC. II. Effect of plasticizer loss on electrical and mechanical properties. J Appl Polym Sci. 1992;45(12):2097–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Soradech S, Nunthanid J, Limmatvapirat S, Luangtana-Anan M. An approach for the enhancement of the mechanical properties and film coating efficiency of shellac by the formation of composite films based on shellac and gelatin. J Food Eng. 2012;108(1):94–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tarvainen M, Peltonen S, Mikkonen H, Elovaara M, Tuunainen M, Paronen P, et al. Aqueous starch acetate dispersion as a novel coating material for controlled release products. J Control Release. 2004;96(1):179–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Product DevelopmentPrinston Pharmaceutical Inc.SomersetUSA
  2. 2.College of PharmacyUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations