AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 19, Issue 8, pp 3388–3402 | Cite as

Pharmaceutical Additive Manufacturing: a Novel Tool for Complex and Personalized Drug Delivery Systems

  • Jiaxiang Zhang
  • Anh Q. Vo
  • Xin Feng
  • Suresh Bandari
  • Michael A. Repka
Review Article Theme: Printing and Additive Manufacturing
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Theme: Printing and Additive Manufacturing


Inter-individual variability is always an issue when treating patients of different races, genders, ages, pharmacogenetics, and pharmacokinetic characteristics. However, the development of novel dosage forms is limited by the huge investments required for production line modifications and dosages diversity. Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing can be a novel alternative solution for the development of controlled release dosages because it can produce personalized or unique dosage forms and more complex drug-release profiles. The primary objective of this manuscript is to review the 3D printing processes that have been used in the pharmaceutical area, including their general aspects, materials, and the operation of each AM technique. Advantages and shortcomings of the technologies are discussed with respect to practice and practical applications. Thus, this review will provide an overview and discussion on advanced pharmaceutical AM technologies, which can be used to produce unique controlled drug delivery systems and personalized dosages for the future of personalized medicine.


pharmaceutical additive manufacturing 3D printing drug delivery system personalized dosages patient-centered drug development 



The authors thank the Pii Center for Pharmaceutical Technology for contributions in this project.

Funding Information

This work was partially supported by Grant Number P20GM104932 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), a component of NIH.


  1. 1.
    Misra A, Ganesh S, Shahiwala A, Shah SP. Drug delivery to the central nervous system: a review. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2003;6:252–73.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Langer R. New methods of drug delivery. Science (80-. ). JSTOR; 1990;1527–33.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lepourcelet M, Chen Y-NP, France DS, Wang H, Crews P, Petersen F, et al. Small-molecule antagonists of the oncogenic Tcf/β-catenin protein complex. Cancer cell. Elsevier. 2004;5:91–102.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Uhrich KE, Cannizzaro SM, Langer RS, Shakesheff KM. Polymeric systems for controlled drug release. Chem Rev ACS Publications. 1999;99:3181–98.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Crowley MM, Zhang F, Repka MA, Thumma S, Upadhye SB, Kumar Battu S, et al. Pharmaceutical applications of hot-melt extrusion: part I. Drug Dev Ind Pharm Taylor & Francis. 2007;33:909–26.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blagden N, De Matas M, Gavan PT, York P. Crystal engineering of active pharmaceutical ingredients to improve solubility and dissolution rates. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. Elsevier. 2007;59:617–30.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vasconcelos T, Sarmento B, Costa P. Solid dispersions as strategy to improve oral bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs. Drug Discov Today Elsevier. 2007;12:1068–75.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sandler N, Määttänen A, Ihalainen P, Kronberg L, Meierjohann A, Viitala T, et al. Inkjet printing of drug substances and use of porous substrates-towards individualized dosing. J Pharm Sci. Wiley Online Library. 2011;100:3386–95.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Preis M, Breitkreutz J, Sandler N. Perspective: concepts of printing technologies for oral film formulations. Int J Pharm. Elsevier. 2015;494:578–84.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Maffezzoli A. Rapid prototyping: an overview. Lecce: Univ. Lecce; 2000. p. 1–21.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    American Society for Testing and Materials. Committee F42 on additive manufacturing technologies—scope [Internet]. ASTM. 2009 [cited 2017 Sep 24]. Available from: Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gross BC, Erkal JL, Lockwood SY, Chen C, Spence DM. Evaluation of 3D printing and its potential impact on biotechnology and the chemical sciences. ACS Publications; 2014.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Melchels FPW, Domingos MAN, Klein TJ, Malda J, Bartolo PJ, Hutmacher DW. Additive manufacturing of tissues and organs. Prog Polym Sci. Elsevier. 2012;37:1079–104.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kodama H. Automatic method for fabricating a three-dimensional plastic model with photo-hardening polymer. Rev Sci Instrum. AIP. 1981;52:1770–3.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kodama H. A scheme for three-dimensional display by automatic fabrication of three-dimensional model. J IEICE. 1981;64:1981–4.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bandyopadhyay A, Vahabzadeh S, Shivaram A, Bose S. Three-dimensional printing of biomaterials and soft materials. MRS Bull Cambridge University Press. 2015;40:1162–9.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Norman J, Madurawe RD, Moore CMV, Khan MA, Khairuzzaman A. A new chapter in pharmaceutical manufacturing: 3D-printed drug products. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. Elsevier. 2017;108:39–50.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Goole J, Amighi K. 3D printing in pharmaceutics: a new tool for designing customized drug delivery systems. Int J Pharm. Elsevier. 2016;499:376–94.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kalaskar DM, Serra T. 3d printing in medicine. 1st Editio. Kalaskar DM, editor. London: Woodhead Publishing; 2017. p. 16–32.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Desimone JM, Moshkin A, Ermoshkin N, Samulski ET, inventors. Sibley KD, assignee. Continuous liquid interphase printing. Patent WO/2014/126837. 21 Aug. 2014. Available from:
  21. 21.
    Aprecia Pharmaceuticals First FDA-approved medicine manufactured using 3D printing technology now available. 2016;6–8.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carl SM, Lindley DJ, Knipp GT, Morris KR, Oliver E, Becker GW, et al. Biotechnology-derived drug product development. Pharm. Manuf. Handb. Prod. Process. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Conway BR. Solid dosage forms. Pharm. Manuf. Handb. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008. p. 233–65.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ventola CL. Medical applications for 3D printing: current and projected uses. Pharm Ther. MediMedia, USA. 2014;39:704.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Do A-V, Smith R, Acri TM, Geary SM, Salem AK. 3D printing technologies for 3D scaffold engineering. Funct 3D Tissue Eng Scaffolds. Elsevier. 2018;203–34. Available from:
  26. 26.
    Zhang J, Yang W, Vo AQ, Feng X, Ye X, Kim DW, et al. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-based controlled release dosage by melt extrusion and 3D printing: structure and drug release correlation. Carbohydr Polym. 2017;177:49–57.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goyanes A, Wang J, Buanz A, Martínez-Pacheco R, Telford R, Gaisford S, et al. 3D printing of medicines: engineering novel oral devices with unique design and drug release characteristics. Mol Pharm. American Chemical Society. 2015;12:4077–84.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Okwuosa TC, Pereira BC, Arafat B, Cieszynska M, Isreb A, Alhnan MA. Fabricating a shell-core delayed release tablet using dual FDM 3D printing for patient-centred therapy. Pharm Res. Springer US. 2017;34:427–37.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Straub J. Initial work on the characterization of additive manufacturing (3D printing) using software image analysis. Machines. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. 2015;3:55–71.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Alhnan MA, Okwuosa TC, Sadia M, Wan KW, Ahmed W, Arafat B. Emergence of 3D printed dosage forms: opportunities and challenges. Pharm Res. 2016;33:1817–32.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gibson I, Rosen D, Stucker B. Introduction and Basic Principles. Addit. Manuf. Technol. New York: Springer; 2015. p. 1–18.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cooke MN, Fisher JP, Dean D, Rimnac C, Mikos AG. Use of stereolithography to manufacture critical-sized 3D biodegradable scaffolds for bone ingrowth. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. Wiley Online Library. 2003;64:65–9.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chia HN, Wu BM. Recent advances in 3D printing of biomaterials. J Biol Eng. BioMed Central. 2015;9:4.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gibson I, Rosen D, Stucker B. Development of additive manufacturing technology. Addit. Manuf. Technol. New York: Springer; 2015. p. 19–42Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gibson I, Rosen D, Stucker B. Generalized additive manufacturing process chain. Addit. Manuf. Technol. New York: Springer; 2015. p. 43–61.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chen B, Zhu L, Zhang F, Qiu Y. Process development and scale-up: twin-screw extrusion. Dev. Solid Oral Dos. Forms Pharm. Theory Pract. Second Ed. 2016. p. 821–68.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Qiu Y, He X, Zhu L, Chen B. Product and process development of solid oral dosage forms. Dev. Solid Oral Dos. Forms. 2017. p. 555–91.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yaman U, Butt N, Sacks E, Hoffmann C. Slice coherence in a query-based architecture for 3D heterogeneous printing. Comput Des. 2016;75–76:27–38.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Low ZX, Chua YT, Ray BM, Mattia D, Metcalfe IS, Patterson DA. Perspective on 3D printing of separation membranes and comparison to related unconventional fabrication techniques. J Memb Sci. Elsevier. 2017;523:596–613.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Krivec M, Roshanghias A, Abram A, Binder A. Exploiting the combination of 3D polymer printing and inkjet Ag-nanoparticle printing for advanced packaging. Microelectron Eng. Elsevier. 2017;176:1–5.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhang J, Feng X, Patil H, Tiwari RV, Repka MA. Coupling 3D printing with hot-melt extrusion to produce controlled-release tablets. Int J Pharm. 2017;519:186–97.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Miao S, Castro N, Nowicki M, Xia L, Cui H, Zhou X, et al. 4D printing of polymeric materials for tissue and organ regeneration. Mater Today. Elsevier. 2017;20:577–91.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Birtchnell T, Urry J. 3D, SF and the future. Futures. Pergamon. 2013;50:25–34.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fina F, Goyanes A, Gaisford S, Basit AW. Selective laser sintering (SLS) 3D printing of medicines. Int J Pharm. Elsevier. 2017;529:285–93.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Peng W, Datta P, Ayan B, Ozbolat V, Sosnoski D, Ozbolat IT. 3D bioprinting for drug discovery and development in pharmaceutics. Acta Biomater. Elsevier. 2017;57:26–46.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dimitrov D, Schreve K, De Beer N. Advances in three dimensional printing—state of the art and future perspectives. Rapid Prototyp J. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. 2006;12:136–47.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kozin ED, Black NL, Cheng JT, Cotler MJ, McKenna MJ, Lee DJ, et al. Design, fabrication, and in vitro testing of novel three-dimensionally printed tympanic membrane grafts. Hear Res. 2016;340:191–203.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Vaezi M, Yang S. Freeform fabrication of nanobiomaterials using 3D printing. Rapid Prototyp Biomater. 2014;16–74.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Reprap. Fused filament fabrication [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2017 Nov 8]. p. 1. Available from:
  50. 50.
    Korpela J, Kokkari A, Korhonen H, Malin M, Närhi T, Seppälä J. Biodegradable and bioactive porous scaffold structures prepared using fused deposition modeling. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. Wiley online Library. 2013;101:610–9.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Goyanes A, Buanz ABM, Basit AW, Gaisford S. Fused-filament 3D printing (3DP) for fabrication of tablets. Int J Pharm. Elsevier. 2014;476:88–92.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Goyanes A, Robles Martinez P, Buanz A, Basit AW, Gaisford S. Effect of geometry on drug release from 3D printed tablets. Int J Pharm. Elsevier. 2015;494:657–63.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Goyanes A, Buanz ABM, Hatton GB, Gaisford S, Basit AW. 3D printing of modified-release aminosalicylate (4-ASA and 5-ASA) tablets. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. Elsevier. 2015;89:157–62.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Skowyra J, Pietrzak K, Alhnan MA. Fabrication of extended-release patient-tailored prednisolone tablets via fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing. Eur J Pharm Sci 2015;68:11–7. Available from: Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pietrzak K, Isreb A, Alhnan MA. A flexible-dose dispenser for immediate and extended release 3D printed tablets. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. Elsevier. 2015;96:380–7.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jamróz W, Kurek M, Łyszczarz E, Szafraniec J, Knapik-Kowalczuk J, Syrek K, et al. 3D printed orodispersible films with aripiprazole. Int J Pharm. 2017;533:413–20.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Beck RCR, Chaves PS, Goyanes A, Vukosavljevic B, Buanz A, Windbergs M, et al. 3D printed tablets loaded with polymeric nanocapsules: an innovative approach to produce customized drug delivery systems. Int J Pharm. 2017;528:268–79.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    OConnor T, Lee S. Emerging technology for modernizing pharmaceutical production: continuous manufacturing. Dev. Solid Oral Dos. Forms Pharm. Theory Pract. Second ed. 2016. p. 1031–46.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sadia M, Arafat B, Ahmed W, Forbes RE, Alhnan MA. Channelled tablets: an innovative approach to accelerating drug release from 3D printed tablets. J Control Release. 2017;269:355–63.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chimate C, Koc B. Pressure assisted multi-syringe single nozzle deposition system for manufacturing of heterogeneous tissue scaffolds. Int J Adv Manuf Technol, Springer London. 2014;75:317–30.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vozzi G, Flaim C, Ahluwalia A, Bhatia S. Fabrication of PLGA scaffolds using soft lithography and microsyringe deposition. Biomaterials. 2003;24:2533–40.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Liu Z, Zhang M, Bhandari B, Wang Y. 3D printing: Printing precision and application in food sector. Trends Food Sci Technol. Elsevier; 2017. p. 83–94.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Li Q, Guan X, Cui M, Zhu Z, Chen K, Wen H, et al. Preparation and investigation of novel gastro-floating tablets with 3D extrusion-based printing. Int J Pharm. Elsevier. 2018;535:325–32.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Li J, Chen M, Fan X, Zhou H. Recent advances in bioprinting techniques: approaches, applications and future prospects. J Transl Med. BioMed Central. 2016;14:271.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kolesky DB, Truby RL, Gladman AS, Busbee TA, Homan KA, Lewis JA. 3D bioprinting of vascularized, heterogeneous cell-laden tissue constructs. Adv Mater. 2014;26:3124–30.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Colosi C, Shin SR, Manoharan V, Massa S, Costantini M, Barbetta A, et al. Microfluidic bioprinting of heterogeneous 3D tissue constructs using low-viscosity bioink. Adv Mater. 2016;28:677–84.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gu BK, Choi DJ, Park SJ, Kim MS, Kang CM, Kim C-H. 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications. Biomater Res. BioMed Central. 2016;20:12.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Greulich M, Greul M, Pintat T. Fast, functional prototypes via multiphase jet solidification. Rapid Prototyp J. MCB UP Ltd; 1995;1:20–5. Available from: Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Koch KU. Time-compression technologies ‘98 conference. 1998.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Colosi C, Shin SR, Manoharan V, Massa S, Costantini M, Barbetta A, et al. Supporting information: microfluidic bioprinting of heterogeneous 3D tissue constructs using low-viscosity bioink. Adv Mater. 2016;28:677–684a.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wu BM, Borland SW, Giordano RA, Cima LG, Sachs EM, Cima MJ. Solid free-form fabrication of drug delivery devices. J Control Release. 1996;40:77–87.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Katstra WE, Palazzolo RD, Rowe CW, Giritlioglu B, Teung P, Cima MJ. Oral dosage forms fabricated by three dimensional printing (TM). J Control Release. 2000;66:1–9.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tan KH, Chua CK, Leong KF, Cheah CM, Gui WS, Tan WS, et al. Selective laser sintering of biocompatible polymers for applications in tissue engineering. Biomed Mater Eng. IOS Press. 2005;15:113–24.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chen C-H, Lee M-Y, Shyu VB-H, Chen Y-C, Chen C-T, Chen J-P. Surface modification of polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering for cartilage tissue engineering. Mater Sci Eng C. Elsevier. 2014;40:389–97.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Schmidt M, Pohle D, Rechtenwald T. Selective laser sintering of PEEK. CIRP Ann Technol. Elsevier. 2007;56:205–8.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Arcaute K, Mann B, Wicker R. Stereolithography of spatially controlled multi-material bioactive poly (ethylene glycol) scaffolds. Acta Biomater Elsevier. 2010;6:1047–54.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Billiet T, Vandenhaute M, Schelfhout J, Van Vlierberghe S, Dubruel P. A review of trends and limitations in hydrogel-rapid prototyping for tissue engineering. Biomaterials. Elsevier. 2012;33:6020–41.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Daly R, Harrington TS, Martin GD, Hutchings IM. Inkjet printing for pharmaceutics—a review of research and manufacturing. Int J Pharm. Elsevier. 2015;494:554–67.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Palo M, Kogermann K, Laidmäe I, Meos A, Preis M, Heinämäki J, et al. Development of oromucosal dosage forms by combining electrospinning and inkjet printing. Mol Pharm. ACS Publications. 2017;14:808–20.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Khaled SA, Burley JC, Alexander MR, Roberts CJ. Desktop 3D printing of controlled release pharmaceutical bilayer tablets. Int J Pharm Elsevier. 2014;461:105–11.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Knowlton S, Anand S, Shah T, Tasoglu S. Bioprinting for neural tissue engineering. Trends Neurosci. 2018;41:31–46.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jessop ZM, Al-Sabah A, Gardiner MD, Combellack E, Hawkins K, Whitaker IS. 3D bioprinting for reconstructive surgery: principles, applications and challenges. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. Churchill Livingstone. 2017;70:1155–70.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ji S, Guvendiren M. Recent advances in bioink design for 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. Frontiers Media SA. 2017;5:23.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Aho J, Boetker JP, Baldursdottir S, Rantanen J. Rheology as a tool for evaluation of melt processability of innovative dosage forms. Int J Pharm. Elsevier. 2015;494:623–42.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lewis JA, Gratson GM. Direct writing in three dimensions. Mater Today. Elsevier. 2004;7:32–9.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Tartarisco G, Gallone G, Carpi F, Vozzi G. Polyurethane unimorph bender microfabricated with pressure assisted microsyringe (PAM) for biomedical applications. Mater Sci Eng CElsevier. 2009;29:1835–41.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Smith-Moritz G. “Multiphase jet solidification (MJS)”, Rapid Prototyping Report, CAD/CAM Publishing Inc. 1994;4;6.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kennicott PR. An application reference model for layered manufacturing. Albuquerque: Sandia National Labs.; 1994.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Geiger M, Steger W, Greul M, Sindel M. Multiphase jet solidification. Eur. Action Rapid Prototyp. Aarhus; 1994; EARP-Newsl.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Green body - Wikipedia [Internet]. [cited 2017 Dec 31]. Available from:
  91. 91.
    Greul M, Pintat T, Greulich M. Rapid prototyping of functional metallic parts. Comput Ind. Elsevier. 1995;28:23–8.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Landers R, Mülhaupt R. Desktop manufacturing of complex objects, prototypes and biomedical scaffolds by means of computer-assisted design combined with computer-guided 3D plotting of polymers and reactive oligomers. Macromol Mater Eng. Wiley subscription services, Inc., A Wiley Company. 2000;282:17–21.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sun W, Lal P. Recent development on computer aided tissue engineering—a review. Comput Methods Prog Biomed. Elsevier. 2002;67:85–103.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hollister SJ, Maddox RD, Taboas JM. Optimal design and fabrication of scaffolds to mimic tissue properties and satisfy biological constraints. Biomaterials. Elsevier. 2002;23:4095–103.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hutmacher DW. Scaffolds in tissue engineering bone and cartilage. Biomaterials. Elsevier. 2000;21:2529–43.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wang F, Shor L, Darling A, Khalil S, Sun W, Güçeri S, et al. Precision extruding deposition and characterization of cellular poly-ϵ-caprolactone tissue scaffolds. Rapid Prototyp J Emerald Group Publishing Limited. 2004;10:42–9.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bellini A. Fused deposition of ceramics: a comprehensive experimental, analytical and computational study of material behavior, fabrication process and equipment design. Doctrate thesis. 2002.
  98. 98.
    Shor L, Güçeri S, Chang R, Gordon J, Kang Q, Hartsock L, et al. Precision extruding deposition (PED) fabrication of polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biofabrication. IOP Publishing; 2009;1:15003.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ulery BD, Nair LS, Laurencin CT. Biomedical applications of biodegradable polymers. J Polym Sci B Polym Phys. 2011;49:832–64.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Darling A, Shor L, Sun W, Guceri S. Super-Sparger microcarrier beads and precision extrusion deposited poly-epsilon-Caprolactone structures for biological applications. Patent WO/2006/091921. 31 August 2006. Available from:
  101. 101.
    Neff M, Kessling O. Layered functional parts on an industrial scale. Kunst Int. 2014;104:40–3.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sachs E, Cima M, Cornie J. Three-dimensional printing: rapid tooling and prototypes directly from a CAD model. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol. Elsevier. 1990;39:201–4.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Aulton ME, Taylor K. Aulton’s pharmaceutics: the design and manufacture of medicines. Aulton’s pharm. Des. Manuf. Med. Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier; 2013.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    de Leon AC, Chen Q, Palaganas NB, Palaganas JO, Manapat J, Advincula RC. High performance polymer nanocomposites for additive manufacturing applications. React Funct Polym. Elsevier. 2016;103:141–55.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Goh GL, Ma J, Chua KLF, Shweta A, Yeong WY, Zhang YP. Inkjet-printed patch antenna emitter for wireless communication application. Virtual Phys Prototyp. 2016;11:289–94.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Cima LG, Vacanti JP, Vacanti C, Ingber D, Mooney D, Langer R. Tissue engineering by cell transplantation using degradable polymer substrates. J Biomech Eng American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1991;113:143–51.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kruth JP, Wang X, Laoui T, Froyen L. Lasers and materials in selective laser sintering. Assem Autom MCB UP Ltd. 2003;23:357–71.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ligon SC, Liska R, Stampfl J, Gurr M, Mülhaupt R. Polymers for 3D printing and customized additive manufacturing. Chem Rev American Chemical Society. 2017;117:10212–90.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Melchels FPW, Feijen J, Grijpma DW. A review on stereolithography and its applications in biomedical engineering. Biomaterials. Elsevier. 2010;31:6121–30.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Jacobs PF. Rapid prototyping & manufacturing: fundamentals of stereolithography. Society of Manufacturing Engineers, in cooperation with the computer and Automated Systems Association of SME; McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, NY, 1993 Available from:
  111. 111.
    Zheng X, Deotte J, Alonso MP, Farquar GR, Weisgraber TH, Gemberling S, et al. Design and optimization of a light-emitting diode projection micro-stereolithography three-dimensional manufacturing system. Rev Sci Instrum, AIP. 2012;83:125001.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Sun C, Fang N, Wu DM, Zhang X. Projection micro-stereolithography using digital micro-mirror dynamic mask. Sensors Actuators A Phys Elsevier. 2005;121:113–20.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Grogan SP, Chung PH, Soman P, Chen P, Lotz MK, Chen S, et al. Digital micromirror device projection printing system for meniscus tissue engineering. Acta Biomater Elsevier. 2013;9:7218–26.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lee MP, Cooper GJT, Hinkley T, Gibson GM, Padgett MJ, Cronin L. Development of a 3D printer using scanning projection stereolithography. Sci Rep Nature Publishing Group. 2015;5:9875.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tumbleston JR, Shirvanyants D, Ermoshkin N, Janusziewicz R, Johnson AR, Kelly D, et al. Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects. Science (80-. ). American association for the Advancement of Science. 2015;347:1349–52.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Johnson AR, Caudill CL, Tumbleston JR, Bloomquist CJ, Moga KA, Ermoshkin A, et al. Single-step fabrication of computationally designed microneedles by continuous liquid interface production. PLoS One Public Library of Science. 2016;11:e0162518.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Janusziewicz R, Tumbleston JR, Quintanilla AL, Mecham SJ, DeSimone JM. Layerless fabrication with continuous liquid interface production. Proc Natl Acad Sci National Acad Sciences; 2016;201605271.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Gomez LPC, Spangenberg A, Ton X, Fuchs Y, Bokeloh F, Malval J, et al. Rapid prototyping of chemical microsensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers synthesized by two-photon stereolithography. Adv Mater, Wiley Online Library. 2016;28:5931–7.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Cumpston BH, Ananthavel SP, Barlow S, Dyer DL, Ehrlich JE, Erskine LL, et al. Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication. Nature Nature Publishing Group. 1999;398:51–4.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Xing J-F, Zheng M-L, Duan X-M. Two-photon polymerization microfabrication of hydrogels: an advanced 3D printing technology for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Chem Soc Rev Royal Society of Chemistry. 2015;44:5031–9.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Claeyssens F, Hasan EA, Gaidukeviciute A, Achilleos DS, Ranella A, Reinhardt C, et al. Three-dimensional biodegradable structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization. Langmuir. ACS Publications. 2009;25:3219–23.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Weiß T, Hildebrand G, Schade R, Liefeith K. Two-photon polymerization for microfabrication of three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering application. Eng Life Sci Wiley Online Library. 2009;9:384–90.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Truby RL, Lewis JA. Printing soft matter in three dimensions. Nature Nature Research. 2016;540:371–8.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Liska R, Schuster M, Inführ R, Turecek C, Fritscher C, Seidl B, et al. Photopolymers for rapid prototyping. J Coat Technol Res Springer. 2007;4:505–10.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Schuster M, Turecek C, Kaiser B, Stampfl J, Liska R, Varga F. Evaluation of biocompatible photopolymers I: photoreactivity and mechanical properties of reactive diluents. J Macromol Sci A Taylor & Francis. 2007;44:547–57.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Schuster M, Turecek C, Mateos A, Stampfl J, Liska R, Varga F. Evaluation of biocompatible photopolymers II: further reactive diluents. Monatshefte für Chemie/Chemical Mon. Springer, 2007;138:261–8.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Channasanon S, Udomkusonsri P, Chantaweroad S, Tesavibul P, Tanodekaew S. Gentamicin released from porous scaffolds fabricated by stereolithography. J Healthc Eng Hindawi. 2017;2017Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Wang J, Goyanes A, Gaisford S, Basit AW. Stereolithographic (SLA) 3D printing of oral modified-release dosage forms. Int J Pharm. Elsevier. 2016;503:207–12.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Le HP. Progress and trends in ink-jet printing technology. J Imaging Sci Technol Society for Imaging Science Technology. 1998;42:49–62.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Gudapati H, Dey M, Ozbolat I. A comprehensive review on droplet-based bioprinting: past, present and future. Biomaterials. Elsevier. 2016;102:20–42.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Tasoglu S, Demirci U. Bioprinting for stem cell research. Trends Biotechnol. Elsevier. 2013;31:10–9.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Derby B. Bioprinting: inkjet printing proteins and hybrid cell-containing materials and structures. J Mater Chem Royal Society of Chemistry. 2008;18:5717–21.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Derby B. Inkjet printing of functional and structural materials: fluid property requirements, feature stability, and resolution. Annu Rev Mater Res. Annual Reviews. 2010;40:395–414.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Sutanto E, Shigeta K, Kim YK, Graf PG, Hoelzle DJ, Barton KL, et al. A multimaterial electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) printing system. J Micromech Microeng IOP Publishing. 2012;22:45008.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Hayati I, Bailey AI, Tadros TF. Mechanism of stable jet formation in electrohydrodynamic atomization. Nature Springer. 1986;319:41–3.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Demirci U. Acoustic picoliter droplets for emerging applications in semiconductor industry and biotechnology. J Microelectromech Syst IEEE. 2006;15:957–66.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Moon S, Hasan SK, Song YS, Xu F, Keles HO, Manzur F, et al. Layer by layer three-dimensional tissue epitaxy by cell-laden hydrogel droplets. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor New Rochelle, NY 10801 USA. 2009;16:157–66.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Faulkner-Jones A, Greenhough S, King JA, Gardner J, Courtney A, Shu W. Development of a valve-based cell printer for the formation of human embryonic stem cell spheroid aggregates. Biofabrication. IOP Publishing. 2013;5:15013.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Gao G, Cui X. Three-dimensional bioprinting in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Biotechnol Lett Springer. 2016;38:203–11.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Xu F, Wu J, Wang S, Durmus NG, Gurkan UA, Demirci U. Microengineering methods for cell-based microarrays and high-throughput drug-screening applications. Biofabrication. IOP Publishing. 2011;3:34101.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Xu F, Celli J, Rizvi I, Moon S, Hasan T, Demirci U. A three-dimensional in vitro ovarian cancer coculture model using a high-throughput cell patterning platform. Biotechnol J Wiley Online Library. 2011;6:204–12.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Clark EA, Alexander MR, Irvine DJ, Roberts CJ, Wallace MJ, Sharpe S, et al. 3D printing of tablets using inkjet with UV photoinitiation. Int J Pharm Elsevier. 2017;529:523–30.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kyobula M, Adedeji A, Alexander MR, Saleh E, Wildman R, Ashcroft I, et al. 3D inkjet printing of tablets exploiting bespoke complex geometries for controlled and tuneable drug release. J Control Release Elsevier. 2017;261:207–15.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Liaw C-Y, Guvendiren M. Current and emerging applications of 3D printing in medicine. Biofabrication. 2017;9:24102.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Preis M, Öblom H. 3D-printed drugs for children—are we ready yet? AAPS PharmSciTech Springer US. 2017;18:303–8.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Shirazi SFS, Gharehkhani S, Mehrali M, Yarmand H, Metselaar HSC, Adib Kadri N, et al. A review on powder-based additive manufacturing for tissue engineering: selective laser sintering and inkjet 3D printing. Sci Technol Adv Mater. 2015;16:1–20.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Bai J, Zhang B, Song J, Bi G, Wang P, Wei J. The effect of processing conditions on the mechanical properties of polyethylene produced by selective laser sintering. Polym Test. 2016;52:89–93.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Millennium N, Based R, Seite A, Practice GM, Approach R, Management MSR, et al. Pharmaceutical cGMPs for the 21 st Century : A Risk-Based Approach; 2003;21–3.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Tomba E, Facco P, Bezzo F, Barolo M. Latent variable modeling to assist the implementation of quality-by-design paradigms in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing: a review. Int J Pharm. Elsevier. 2013;457:283–97.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Guerra AJ, Ciurana J. 3D-printed bioabsordable polycaprolactone stent: the effect of process parameters on its physical features. Mater Des Elsevier. 2018;137:430–7.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Liravi F, Toyserkani E. A hybrid additive manufacturing method for the fabrication of silicone bio-structures: 3D printing optimization and surface characterization. Mater Des Elsevier. 2018;138:46–61.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Food and Drug Administration. Technical Considerations for Additive Manufactured Devices; draft guidance for industry and Food and Drug Administration staff. FDA. 2016;Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiaxiang Zhang
    • 1
  • Anh Q. Vo
    • 1
  • Xin Feng
    • 1
  • Suresh Bandari
    • 1
  • Michael A. Repka
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, School of PharmacyUniversity of MississippiUniversityUSA
  2. 2.Pii Center for Pharmaceutical TechnologyThe University of MississippiUniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations