AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 2237–2246 | Cite as

Characterization and In Vitro Permeation Study of Cubic Liquid Crystal Containing Sinomenine Hydrochloride

  • Xiaoqin Chu
  • Qian Li
  • Shuangying Gui
  • Zhengguang Li
  • Jiaojiao Cao
  • Jianqin JiangEmail author
Research Article


This study developed a new transdermal delivery system for the improved delivery of sinomenine hydrochloride (SH). The delivery system utilized the advantages of lyotropic liquid crystals (LLC) creating an adaptable system that offers a variety of options for the field of transdermal delivery. The formulation was prepared, characterized, and evaluated for its skin penetration in vitro. In the study, the appearance of samples was characterized by visual observation, and these LLC gels were colorless and transparent. Polarizing light microscopy (PLM) and small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS) were used to analyze the internal structures of gels, and the gels displayed a cubic double-diamond (Pn3m) internal structure with a dark field of vision. The Franze diffusion cell was used to evaluate its skin penetration. There were several factors which might influence the skin penetration of drugs, such as drug loading, water content, and the layer spacing of the LLC. In our case, drug concentration gradient played a more powerful role. The result of in vitro permeation studies demonstrated that the drug concentration was higher; the cumulative osmotic quantity of SH (Q) was greater. Therefore, the system was a promising formulation for successful percutaneous delivery of SH through the skin.


sinomenine hydrochloride lyotropic liquid crystals transdermal drug delivery systems skin penetration 



The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of China Pharmaceutical University.

Funding Information

The authors are grateful for financial support from the National Natural Science Foundations of China (No. 81274099, No. 81072537), the Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation (No. 1408085QH183), Key University natural science research project of Anhui province (KJ2018A0301), and the Exploratory Research Projects of Anhui University of Chinese Medicine (No. 2016ts066).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoqin Chu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Qian Li
    • 2
  • Shuangying Gui
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zhengguang Li
    • 2
  • Jiaojiao Cao
    • 2
  • Jianqin Jiang
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Traditional Chinese PharmacyChina Pharmaceutical UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.School of PharmacyAnhui University of Chinese MedicineHefeiChina
  3. 3.Institute of PharmaceuticsAnhui Academy of Chinese MedicineHefeiChina
  4. 4.Cellular and Molecular Biology CenterChina Pharmaceutical UniversityNanjingChina

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