Anti-inflammatory Effect of Seeds and Callus of Nigella sativa L. Extracts on Mix Glial Cells with Regard to Their Thymoquinone Content
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Anti-inflammatory effect of the alcoholic extracts of N. sativa seeds and its callus on mix glial cells of rat with regard to their thymoquinone (TQ) content was investigated. Callus induction was achieved for explants of young leaf, stem, petiole, and root of N. sativa on solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 2,4-D (1 mg/l) and kinetin (2.15 mg/l). TQ content of the alcoholic extracts was measured by HPLC. Total phenols were determined using Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant power was estimated using FRAP tests. The mix glial cells, inflamed by lipopolysaccharide, were subjected to anti-inflammatory studies in the presence of various amounts of TQ and the alcoholic extracts. Viability of the cells and nitric oxide production were measured by MTT and Griess reagent, respectively. The leaf callus obtained the highest growth rate (115.4 mg/day) on MS medium containing 2,4-D (0.22 mg/l) and kinetin (2.15 mg/l). Analyses confirmed that TQ content of the callus of leaf was 12 times higher than that measured in the seeds extract. However, it decreased as the calli aged. Decrease in the TQ content of the callus was accompanied with an increase in its phenolic content and antioxidant ability. Studies on the inflamed rat mix glial cells revealed significant reduction in the nitric oxide production in the presence of 0.2 to 1.6 mg/ml of callus extract and 1.25 to 20 μl/ml of the seed extracts. However, the extent of the effects is modified assumingly due to the presence of the other existing substances in the extracts.