AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 101–110 | Cite as

Thermoreversible Nasal In situ Gel of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride: Formulation, Characterization, and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation

  • Mandar J. Bhandwalkar
  • Amelia M. AvachatEmail author
Research Article


In order to improve the bioavailability of the antidepressant drug, venlafaxine hydrochloride, in situ mucoadhesive thermoreversible gel, was formulated using Lutrol F127 (18%) as a thermo gelling polymer. Mucoadhesion was modulated by trying carbopol 934, PVP K30, HPMC K4M, sodium alginate, tamarind seed gum, and carrageenan as mucoadhesive polymers. Results revealed that as the concentration of mucoadhesive polymer increased the mucoadhesive strength increased but gelation temperature decreased. Formulation was optimized on the basis of clarity, pH, gelation temperature, mucoadhesive strength, gel strength, viscosity, drug content, diffusion through sheep nasal mucosa, histopathological evaluation of mucosa, and pharmacodynamic study in rats. Final formulation T5 containing 18% Lutrol F127 and 0.3% PVP K30 was considered as an optimized formulation. T5 released 97.86 ± 0.073% drug in 150 min with a flux of 0.1545 mg cm−2 min−1 and gelation temperature 31.17 ± 0.30°C. Histopathological evaluation of nasal mucosa revealed that T5 formulation was safe for nasal administration as it caused no damage to nasal epithelium. From the results of pharmacodynamic study, mainly forced swim test (FST), it was concluded that venlafaxine hydrochloride was more effective as an antidepressant by nasal route as in situ gel nasal drops in comparison to oral administration of equivalent dose.

Key words

lutrol F127 mucoadhesive nasal in situ gel thermoreversible venlafaxine HCl 



The authors are thankful to Lupin Research Park, Pune, for providing VENH as a gift sample.


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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PharmaceuticsSinhgad College of PharmacyPuneIndia
  2. 2.Sinhgad College of PharmacyPuneIndia

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