AAPS PharmSciTech

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 384–390 | Cite as

Incorporation in Lipid Microparticles of the UVA Filter, Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane Combined with the UVB Filter, Octocrylene: Effect on Photostability

  • Santo ScaliaEmail author
  • Matteo Mezzena
Research Article


The aim of this study was to reduce the photoinstability of butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), the most widely used UVA filter, by incorporating it in lipid microparticles (LMs) alone or together with the UVB filter octocrylene (OCR), acting also as photostabilizer. Microparticles loaded with BMDBM or with combined BMDBM and OCR were produced by the hot emulsion technique, using glyceryl behenate as lipid material and poloxamer 188 as surfactant. The LMs were characterized by release studies, scanning electron microscopy, and powder X-ray diffractometry. The BMDBM and OCR loading was 15.2% and 10.6%, respectively. In order to reproduce the conditions prevalent in commercial sunscreen products, the photoprotective efficacy of the LMs was evaluated after their introduction in a model cream (oil-in-water emulsion) containing a mixture of UVA and UVB filters. A small but statistically significant decrease in BMDBM photodegradation was obtained when the UVA filter was encapsulated alone into the LMs (the extent of degradation was 28.6% ±2.4 for non-encapsulated BMDBM and 26.0% ±2.5 for BMDBM-loaded microparticles). On the other hand, the co-loading of OCR in the LMs produced a more marked reduction in the light-induced decomposition of microencapsulated BMDBM (the UVA filter loss was 21.5% ±2.2). Therefore, incorporation in lipid microparticles of BMDBM together with the sunscreen OCR is more effective in enhancing the UVA filter photostability than LMs loaded with BMDBM alone.

Key words

butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane lipid microparticles octocrylene photodegradation sunscreen formulation 



The authors are grateful to MIUR (Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca, Rome, Italy) for financial support.


  1. 1.
    Shaath NA, Shaath M. Recent sunscreen market trends. In: Shaath N, editor. Sunscreens. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor Francis; 2005. p. 929.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Matsumura Y, Ananthaswamy HN. Toxic effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004;195:298–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    EC Commission Recommendation on the efficacy of sunscreen products and the claims made relating thereto. Official Journal of the European Union, 2006;L.265:39–43.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nohynek GJ, Schaefer H. Benefit and risk of organic ultraviolet filters. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2001;33:285–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Agar NS, Halliday GM, Barneston R, Ananthaswamy HN, Wheeler M, Jones AM. The basal layer in human squamous tumors harbors more UVA than UVB fingerprint mutations: a role for UVA in human skin carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 2004;101:4954–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fourtanier A, Bernerd F, Bouillon C, Marrot L, Moyal D, Seité S. Protection of skin biological targets by different types of sunscreens. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2006;22:22–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dondi D, Albini A, Serpone N. Interactions between different UVB/UVA filters contained in commercial suncreams and consequent loss of UV protection. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2006;5:835–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PMBG. Evaluation of the photostability of different UV filter combinations in a sunscreen. Int J Pharm 2006;307:123–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bonda CA. The photostability of organic sunscreen actives. In: Shaath N, editor. Sunscreens. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor Francis; 2005. p. 323–45.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Damiani E, Baschong W, Greci L. UV-filter combinations under UV-A exposure: concomitant quantification of overall spectral stability and molecular integrity. J Photochem Photobiol B 2007;87:95–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Steinberg DC. Regulations of sunscreens worldwide. In: Shaath N, editor. Sunscreens. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor Francis; 2005. p. 180–3.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tarras-Wahlberg N, Stenhagen G, Larkö O, Rosén A, Wennberg AM, Wennerström O. Changes in ultraviolet absorption of sunscreens after ultraviolet irradiation. J Invest Dermatol 1999;113:547–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chatelain E, Gabard B. Photostabilization of butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (Avobenzone) and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate by bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (Tinosorb S), a new UV broadband filter. Photochem Photobiol 2001;74:401–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Scalia S, Simeoni S, Barbieri A, Sostero S. Influence of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on photo-induced free radical production by the sunscreen agent, butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane. J Pharm Pharmacol 2002;54:1553–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Damiani E, Rosati L, Castagna R, Carloni P, Greci L. Changes in ultraviolet absorbance and hence in protective efficacy against lipid peroxidation of organic sunscreens after UV-A irradiation. J Photochem Photobiol B 2006;82:204–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Klein K, Palefsky I. Formulating sunscreen products. In: Shaath N, editor. Sunscreens. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor Francis; 2005. p. 356–70.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Herzog B, Mongiat S, Deshayes C, Neuhaus M, Sommer K, Mantler A. In vivo in vitro assessment of UVA protection by sunscreen formulations containing either butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol or microfine ZnO. Int J Cosmet Sci 2002;24:170–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lapidot N, Gans O, Biagini F, Sosonkin L, Rottman C. Advanced sunscreens: UV absorbers encapsulated in sol-gel glass microcapsules. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 2003;26:67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Iannuccelli V, Sala N, Tursilli R, Coppi G, Scalia S. Influence of liposphere preparation on butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane photostability. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2006;63:140–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xia Q, Saupe A, Müller RH, Souto EB. Nanostructured lipid carriers as novel carrier for sunscreen formulations. Int J Cosmet Sci 2007;29:473–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yener G, Incegül T, Yener N. Importance of using solid lipid microspheres as carriers for UV filters on the example of octyl methoxy cinnamate. Int J Pharm 2003;258:203–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tursilli R, Piel G, Delattre L, Scalia S. Solid lipid microparticles containing the sunscreen agent, octyl-dimethylaminobenzoate: effect of the vehicle. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2007;66:483–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jaspart S, Piel G, Delattre L, Evrard B. Solid lipid microparticles: formulation, preparation, characterization, drug release and applications. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2005;2:75–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Müller RH, Radtke M, Wissing SA. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in cosmetic and dermatological preparations. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2002;54:S131-55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jee JP, Lim SJ, Park JS, Kim CK. Stabilization of all-trans retinol by loading lipophilic antioxidants in solid lipid nanoparticles. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2006;63:134–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Scalia S, Tursilli R, Sala N, Iannuccelli V. Encapsulation in lipospheres of the complex between butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. Int J Pharm 2006;320:79–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Simeoni S, Tursilli R, Bianchi A, Scalia S. Assay of common sunscreen agents in suncare products by high-performance liquid chromatography on a cyanopropyl-bonded silica column. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2005;38:250–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Diffey BL, Robson J. A new substrate to measure sunscreen protection factors throughout the ultraviolet spectrum. J Soc Cosmet Chem 1989;40:127–33.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nasr M, Mansour S, Mortada ND, El Shamy AA. Lipospheres as carrier for topical delivery of aceclofenac: preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation. AAPS PharmSciTech 2008;9:154–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mehnert W, Mäder K. Solid lipid nanoparticles. Production, characterization and applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2001;47:165–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wiechers JW. Avoiding transdermal cosmetic delivery. Cosmet Toil 2000;115:39–46.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Baroli B, Ennas MG, Loffredo F, Isola M, Pinna R, Lopez-Quintela MA. Penetration of metallic nanoparticles in human full-thickness skin. J Invest Dermatol 2007;127:1701–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lademann J, Richter H, Teichmann A, Otberg N, Blume-Peytavi U, Luengo J. Nanoparticles: an efficient carrier for drug delivery into the hair follicles. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2007;66:159–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of FerraraFerraraItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze FarmaceuticheFerraraItaly

Personalised recommendations