Quercetin/β-Cyclodextrin Solid Complexes Prepared in Aqueous Solution Followed by Spray-drying or by Physical Mixture
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The present study was designed to investigate the influence of operating conditions (temperature, stirring time, and excess amount of quercetin) on the complexation of quercetin with β-cyclodextrin using a 23 factorial design. The highest aqueous solubility of quercetin was reached under the conditions 37°C/24 h/6 mM of quercetin. The stoichiometric ratio (1:1) and the apparent stability constant (Ks = 230 M−1) of the quercetin/β-cyclodextrin complex were determined using phase-solubility diagrams. The semi-industrial production of a 1:1 quercetin/β-cyclodextrin solid complex was carried out in aqueous solution followed by spray-drying. Although the yield of the spray-drying process was adequate (77%), the solid complex presented low concentration of quercetin (0.14%, w/w) and, thus, low complexation efficiency. The enhancement of aqueous solubility of quercetin using this method was limited to 4.6-fold in the presence of 15 mM of β-cyclodextrin. Subsequently, an inclusion complex was prepared via physical mixture of quercetin with β-cyclodextrin (molar ratio of 1:1 and quercetin concentration of 23% (w/w)) and characterized using infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The enhancement of aqueous solubility of quercetin using this method was 2.2-fold, similar to that found in the complex prepared in aqueous solution before the spray-drying process (2.5-fold at a molar ratio of 1:1, i.e., 6 mM of quercetin and 6 mM of β-cyclodextrin).