Evaluation of a Particulate Breast Cancer Vaccine Delivered via Skin
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Breast cancer impacts female population globally and is the second most common cancer for females. With various limitations and adverse effects of current therapies, several immunotherapies are being explored. Development of an effective breast cancer vaccine can be a groundbreaking immunotherapeutic approach. Such approaches are being evaluated by several clinical trials currently. On similar lines, our research study aims to evaluate a particulate breast cancer vaccine delivered via skin. This particulate breast cancer vaccine was prepared by spray drying technique and utilized murine breast cancer whole cell lysate as a source of tumor-associated antigens. The average size of the particulate vaccine was 1.5 μm, which resembled the pathogenic species, thereby assisting in phagocytosis and antigen presentation leading to further activation of the immune response. The particulate vaccine was delivered via skin using commercially available metal microneedles. Methylene blue staining and confocal microscopy were used to visualize the microchannels. The results showed that microneedles created aqueous conduits of 50 ± 10 μm to deliver the microparticulate vaccine to the skin layers. Further, an in vivo comparison of immune response depicted significantly higher concentration of serum IgG, IgG2a, and B and T cell (CD4+ and CD8+) populations in the vaccinated animals than the control animals (p < 0.001). Upon challenge with live murine breast cancer cells, the vaccinated animals showed five times more tumor suppression than the control animals confirming the immune response activation and protection (p < 0.001). This research paves a way for individualized immunotherapy following surgical tumor removal to prolong relapse episodes.
KEY WORDSmicroparticle spray drying whole cell lysate microneedle immunotherapy
This work was supported by Georgia Cancer Coalition grant. We would like to thank Dr. Fred Miller for providing the 4T07 murine breast cancer cell line.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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