Population Pharmacokinetics of AL-335 and Its Two Main Metabolites (ALS-022399, ALS-022227) in Monotherapy and in Combination with Odalasvir and/or Simeprevir
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The aim of the current study was to characterize the time course of plasma concentrations of AL-335 and its main metabolites (ALS-022399 and ALS-022227) after oral administration in healthy and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects, in monotherapy as well as in combination with simeprevir and/or odalasvir. AL-335, ALS-022399, and ALS-022227 plasma concentrations from subjects receiving 800 mg of AL-335 orally once daily (qd) as monotherapy or in combination were pooled and analyzed using a nonlinear mixed effect modeling approach. The typical values (between subject variability) of AL-335 and ALS-022399 apparent linear clearances were 3300 L/h (33.9%) and 1910 L/h (30.0%), respectively. ALS-022227 elimination was characterized as a nonlinear process, with typical values of Vmax,ALS-022227 and Km,ALS-022227 estimated to be 84,799 ng/h (14.9%) and 450.2 ng/mL, respectively. AL-335 and ALS-022399 plasma concentrations were increased more than 2-fold in presence of simeprevir and/or odalasvir, while the effect on ALS-022227 plasma concentrations was limited. The effect of simeprevir and/or odalasvir might be explained by their capacity to inhibit P-glycoprotein. Internal evaluation confirmed that the population pharmacokinetic model developed was deemed appropriate to describe the time course of AL-335, ALS-022399, and ALS-022227 plasma concentrations and their associated variability in both healthy and HCV-infected subjects, as well as the interaction effect of simeprevir and/or odalasvir over AL-335 and its metabolites in healthy subjects. This model can be used as a starting point to evaluate drug-drug interaction processes in HCV-infected patients and support the development of a direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination.
KEY WORDSdirect-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonlinear mixed effects modeling pharmacokinetics uridine nucleoside analog
The authors thank Eef Hoeben for her comments and support during the analysis. In addition, the authors would like to thank the patients, investigators, and their medical, nursing, and laboratory staff who participated in the clinical trials included in the present study.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Each protocol was reviewed and approved by an institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained from each subject before enrollment in the studies, after being advised of the potential risks and benefits of the study. The studies were conducted in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki, Good Clinical Practices guidelines, and other applicable regulatory requirements.
Conflict of Interest
Matthew W. McClure was an employee of Alios BioPharma Inc., part of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies, at the time this study was conducted.
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