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The AAPS Journal

, 20:84 | Cite as

Effect of Inhalation Flow Rate on Mass-Based Plume Geometry of Commercially Available Suspension pMDIs

  • Daniel F. Moraga-Espinoza
  • Eli Eshaghian
  • Albert Shaver
  • Hugh D. C. Smyth
Research Article

Abstract

Although high-speed laser imaging is the current standard to characterize the plume angle of suspension-based pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), this method is limited by the inability to identify the drug content in a droplet and simulate inhalation flow. The Plume Induction Port Evaluator (PIPE) is a modified induction port for cascade impactors that allows for the calculation of the angle of a plume based on direct drug mass quantification rather than indirect droplet illumination under airflow conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the PIPE apparatus to evaluate the effect of airflow on the Mass Median Plume Angle (MMPA) of commercially available suspension-based pMDIs (Ventolin® HFA, ProAir® HFA, and Proventil® HFA). Deposition patterns within PIPE were log-normally distributed allowing for the calculation of the MMPA for the three suspension products. Mass-based plume angles were significantly smaller (narrower angle) when inhalation airflow was used compared to no flow conditions (reduction of MMPA was 8, 16, and 13% for Ventolin® HFA, ProAir® HFA, and Proventil® HFA, respectively). Additionally, new parameters for characterizing plume geometry were calculated (MMPA ex-actuator and plume orientation). Mass-based plume angles of the suspension-based pMDI formulations were highly reproducible and demonstrated the effect of inhalation flow rate. These results suggest that plume geometry tests should be evaluated under flow conditions which is not possible using current methodologies.

Graphical Abstract

KEY WORDS

mass median plume angle plume geometry albuterol sulfate plume induction port evaluator high-speed laser imaging 

Abbreviations

HSLI

High-speed laser imaging

MMPA

Mass Median Plume Angle

PIPE

Plume Induction Port Evaluator

Notes

Funding

Daniel Moraga-Espinoza would like to thank CONICYT-Becas Chile for the scholarship to pursue his doctoral studies.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author (HDCS) of this paper consults for and has equity ownership in Respira Therapeutics and Nob Hill Therapeutics on inhaled product development. The terms of this arrangement have been reviewed and approved by the University of Texas at Austin in accordance with its policy on objectivity in research.

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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel F. Moraga-Espinoza
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Eli Eshaghian
    • 4
  • Albert Shaver
    • 1
  • Hugh D. C. Smyth
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Molecular Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, College of PharmacyThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  2. 2.Escuela De FarmaciaUniversidad de ValparaísoValparaísoChile
  3. 3.Centro de Investigación Farmacopea ChilenaUniversidad de ValparaísoValparaísoChile
  4. 4.College of Natural SciencesThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

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