Evaluation of Mucoadhesive PLGA Microparticles for Nasal Immunization
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In this study, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles were prepared and coated with chitosan and trimethyl chitosan (TMC) to evaluate the effect of coating material for nasal vaccine delivery. The developed formulations were characterized for size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and mucin adsorption ability. Plain PLGA microparticles demonstrated negative zeta potential. However, coated microparticles showed higher positive zeta potential. Results indicated that TMC microparticles demonstrated substantially higher mucin adsorption when compared to chitosan-coated microparticles and plain PLGA microparticles. The coated and uncoated microparticles showed deposition in nasal-associated lymphoid tissue under fluorescence microscopy. The coated and uncoated microparticles were then administered intranasally to mice. Immune-adjuvant effect was determined on the basis of specific antibody titer observed in serum and secretions using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was observed that coated particles showed a markedly increased anti-HBsAg titer as compared to plain PLGA microparticles, but the results were more pronounced with the TMC-coated PLGA microparticles.