This study evaluated a breast self-examination intervention to increase phase-specific self-efficacy and positive outcome expectancies. The role of social cognitive predictors in the process of behavior change was investigated. Using cluster randomization, participants were assigned to an intervention (n = 244) or to a control (n = 173) group. Controls were measured twice, with 13 weeks between the assessments. Respondents from the intervention group received the intervention before the 1st measurement. The increase in the number of self-examination components was significantly higher in the intervention group than among controls. Women who had never performed self-examinations before the intervention, as well as those who did it irregularly or incompletely, changed their behavior significantly. Results of structural equation modeling for a 2-group model showed that phase-specific self-efficacy was a significant predictor of intention, planning, and behavior change in the intervention group. In the control group, these relations were weaker or remained nonsignificant. Social cognitive variables measured in this study explained 15% of variance of behavior change in the control group and 29% of breast self-examination change in the intervention group.
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Luszczynska, A. Change in breast self-examination behavior: Effects of intervention on enhancing self-efficacy. Int. J. Behav. Med. 11, 95–103 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327558ijbm1102_5