Skip to main content

Human response to environmental noise: The role of perceived control

Abstract

Negative impacts of noise exposure on health and performance may result in part from “learned helplessness,” the syndrome of deficits typically produced by exposure to uncontrollable events. People may perceive environmental noise to be uncontrollable, and several effects of noise exposure appear to parallel “learned helplessness” deficits. In the present socioacoustic survey (N = 1,015), perceived control over aircraft noise correlated negatively with some effects of noise (though not others). Furthermore, these effects were better predicted by perceived control than by noise level. These observational data support the claim that “learned helplessness” contributes to the effects of noise exposure.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, E. P., & Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans; Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49–74.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ackermann, R., & DeRubeis, R. J. (1991). Is depressive realism real? Psychology Review, 11, 565–584.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Adrien, J., Dugovic, C., & Martin, P. (1991). Sleep/wakefulness patterns in the helpless rat. Physiology & Behaviour, 49, 257–262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barber, J. (1989). A parametric study of learned helplessness in humans. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41A, 339–354.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barber, J. G., Mortimer, J., & Winefield, A. H. (1992). helplessness deficits: Effects of amount of pretraining and test task difficulty. Australian Journal of Psychology, 44, 61–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barnett, P. A., & Gotlib, I. H. (1988). Psychosocial functioning and depression; Distinguishing among antecedents, concomitants and consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 97–126.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berglund, B., & Lindvall, T. (Eds.).(1995). Community noise. Archives of the Centre for Sensory Research, 2, 1–195.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brennan, F. X., Job, R.F.S., Watkins, L. R., & Maier, S. F. (1992). Total plasma cholesterol levelsofrats are increased following three sessions of tailshock. Life Sciences, 50, 645–650.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, R., Pang, G., Husband, A. J., & King, M. G. (1989). Suppression of immunity to influenza virus infection in the respiratory tract following sleep disturbance. Regional Immunology, 2, 321–325.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, R., Pang, G., Husband, A. J., King, M. G., & Bull, D. F. (1992). Sleep deprivation and the immune response to pathogenic and non-pathogenic antigens. In A. J. Husband (Ed.), Behavioural immunity (pp. 126-133). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, R., Price, R. J., King, M. G., & Husband A. J. (1989). Interleukin-1 B and muramyl dipeptide can prevent decreased antibody response associated with sleep deprivation. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 3, 320–330.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buchwald, A. M., Coyne, J. C., & Cole, C. S. (1978). A critical evaluation of the learned Helplessness model of depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 180–193.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bullen, R. B., Hede, A. J., & Kyriacos, E. (1986). Reaction to aircraft noise in residential areas around Australian airports. Journal of Sound & Vibration, 108, 199–225.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bullinger, M., Hygge, S., Evans, G. W., Meis, M., & Von Mackensen, S. (1999). The psychological cost of aircraft noise for children. Zentralblatt fur hygiene und Umweltmedizin, 202, 127–138.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Carter, N. L. (1995) Environmental noise, sleep, and health. In M. Newman (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Acoustics (pp. 33-36). Trondheim: TAPIR.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carter, N. L. (1996). Approaches tothe study of noise induced sleep disturbance. In F. A. Hill & R. Lawrence, (Eds.), Proceedings of Internoise 96 (pp. 2277-2282). St. Albans: Institute of Acoustics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, S. (1980). Aftereffects of stress on human performance and social behavior: A review of research and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 82–108.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, S., Evans, G.W., Krantz, D.S., Stokols, D., & Kelly, S. (1981). Aircraft noise and children: Longitudinal and cross-sectional evidence on adaptation to noise and the effectiveness of noise abatement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 331–345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, S., Evans, G. W., Stokols, D., & Krantz, D. S. (1986). Behavior, health, and environmental stress. New York: Plenum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, S., Rothbart, M., & Phillips, S. (1976). Locus of control and the generality of learned helplessness in humans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 1049–1056.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coyne, J. C., & Gotlib, L. H. (1983). The roleofcognitionindepression; Acritical appraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 472–505.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coyne, J. C., Metalsky, G. I., & Lavelle, T. L. (1980). Learned helplessness as experimenter-induced failure and its alleviation with attentional redeployment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 350–357.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). (1994). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

  • Eckelman, J. D., & Dyck, D. G. (1979). Task-and setting-related cues in immunization against learned helplessness. American Journal of Psychology, 92, 653–667.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Evans, G. W. (1990). The nonauditory effects of noise on child development. In B. Berglund, U.

  • Berglund, J. Karlsson, & T. Lindvall (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Noise as aPublic health Problem (pp. 425-453). Stockholm: Swedish Council for Building Research, D1, 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  • Evans, G. W. (1998). Motivational consequences of exposure to noise. In N. L. Carter, & R.F.S Job (Eds.), Noise Effects 98: Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem, Sydney (pp. 311-320). Sydney, Australia: Noise Effects ’98.

    Google Scholar 

  • Evans, G. W., Bullinger, M., Hygge, S., Gutman, G., & Aziz, N. (1994). Chronic noise exposure and children: Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine processes. In Abstract Guide of the 23rd International Congress of Applied Psychology.Madrid, Spain: International Association of Applied Psychology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Evans, G.W., Hygge, S., & Bullinger, M. (1995). Chronic noise and psychological stress. Psychological Science, 6, 333–338.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Evans, G. W., & Jacobs, S. V. (1981). Air pollution and human behaviour. Journal of Social Issues, 37, 95–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Evans, G. W., & LePore, S. J. (1993). Nonauditory effect of noise on children. Children’s Environments, 10, 31–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frankel, A., & Snyder, M. L. (1978). Poor performance following unsolvable problems: Learned helplessness or egotism? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1415–1423.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Glass, D.C., & Singer, J.E. (1972). Urban stress. Experiments on noise and social stressors. New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Green, K. B., Pasternack, B. S., & Shore, R. E. (1982). Effects of aircraft noise on reading ability of school-age children. Archives of Environmental health, 37, 24–31.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Griffith, M. (1977). Effects of noncontingent success and failure on mood and performance. Journal of Personality, 45, 442–457.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haines, M., Stansfeld, S., Head, J., & Job, R.F.S. (2000). The SATS Study: The effects of aircraft noise exposure on standardised performance tests around Heathrow Airport. In D. Cassereau (Ed.), Proceedings of Internoise 2000 (pp. 369-372). Nice, France: Societe Francaise D’Acoustique.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haines, M. M., Stansfeld, S. A., Job, R. F. S., & Berglund, B. (1998). Chronic aircraft noise exposure and child cognitive performance and stress. In N. L. Carter, & R.F.S Job (Eds.), Noise Effects. Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Noise as a Public health Problem, Sydney (pp. 329–335) Sydney, Australia: Noise Effects ’98.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haines, M.M., Stansfeld, S. A., Job, R. F. S., Berglund, B., & Head, J. (2001). Chronic aircraft noise exposure, stress responses mental health and cognitive performance in school children. Psychological Medicine, 31, 265–277.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hatfield, J., & Job, R. F.S. (1998). Random yoking: An alternative to feedback procedures. Learning and Motivation, 29, 416–434.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hatfield, J., Job, R. F. S., Carter, N. L., Peploe, P., Taylor, R., & Morrell, S. (1998). Attitude-mediated reactiontonoise influences physiological responses: Evidence supporting causality. In Proceedings of InterNoise 98 (abs. 440). Australia: Causal Productions.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hatfield, J., Job, R. F S., Peploe, P., Carter, N.L., Taylor, R., & Morrell, S. (2001). The influence of psychological factors on the physiological and health effects of noise. Noise and Health, 10, 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hiramatsu, K., Yamamoto, T., Taira, K., Ito, A., & Nakasone, R. (1997). A survey on health effects due to aircraft noise on residents living around Kadena in the Ryukyus. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 205, 451–460.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hiroto, D. S., & Seligman, M.E.P. (1975). Generalityof learned helplessness in man. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 311–327.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hobson, J. A. (1989). Sleep. New York: Scientific American Library (W. H. Freeman & Co.).

    Google Scholar 

  • Hygge, S. (1993). Classroom experiments on the effects of aircraft, traffic, train, and verbal noise on long-term recall and recognition in children aged 12-14 years. In M. Vallet (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (pp. 531-534). Arcueil Cedex, France: INRETS.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hygge, S. (1994). Classroom experiments on the effects of aircraft, road traffic, train, and verbal noise presented at 66 dBA Leq, and of aircraft and road traffic noise presented at 55 dBA Leq, on long-term recall and recognition in children aged 12-14 years. Report to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Gävle, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hygge, S., Bullinger, M., & Evans, G. W. (1994). The Munich Airport Noise Study: Cognitive effects on children from before to after the change over of airports. Report to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Gävle, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology,

    Google Scholar 

  • Hygge, S., Evans, G.W., & Bullinger, M. (1993). The Munich Airport Noise Study: Psychological, cognitive, motivational, and qualityoflife effectsonchildren. In M. Vallet (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (pp. 301-308). Arcueil Cedex, France: INRETS.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hygge, S., Evans, G. W., & Bullinger, M. (1996). The Munich airport noise study: Cognitive effects on children from before to after the changeover of airports. In F. A. Hill & R. Lawrence (Eds.), Proceedings of Internoise 96 (pp. 2189-2194). St. Albans: Institute of Acoustics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Job, R.F.S. (1988). Community response to noise: A review of factors influencing the relationship between noise exposure and reaction. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 83, 991–1001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Job, R.F.S. (1996). The influenceofsubjective reactionsto noise onhealth effects ofthe noise. Environment International, 22, 93–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Job, R.F.S., Bullen, R. B., & Burgess, D. H. (1991). Noise induced reaction in a work community adjacent to aircraft runways: The Royal Australian Airforce. In A. Lawrence (Ed.), Proceedings of Internoise 91 (pp. 895-898). Poughkeepsie, NY: Noise Control Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Job, R. F. S., & Hatfield, J. (1998). Community reaction to noise. Australian Acoustics, 26, 35–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Job, R. F. S., Topple, A., Carter, N. L., Peploe, P., Taylor, R., & Morrell, S. (1996). Public reactions to changes in noise levels around Sydney Airport. In F. A. Hill & R. Lawrence (Eds.), Proceedings of Internoise 96 (pp. 2419-2424). St. Albans: Institute of Acoustics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jones, S. L., Nation, J. R., & Massad, P. (1977). Immunization against learned helplessness in man. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86, 75–83.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krantz, D. S., Glass, D. C., & Snyder, M. L. (1974). Helplessness, stress level, and the coronary-prone behaviour pattern. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 284–300.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Langer, E. J. (1975). The illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 311–328.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Langer, E. J., & Rodin, J. (1976). Effects of choice and enhanced personal responsibility for the aged: A field experiment in an institutional setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 191–199.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laudensager, M. L., Ryan, S. M., Drugan, R. C., Hyson, R. L., & Maier, S. F. (1983). Coping and immunosuppression: Inescapable but not escapable shock suppresses lymphocyte proliferation. Science, 221, 568–570.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lercher, P. (1996). Environmental noise and health: An integrated research perspective. Environment International, 22, 117–129.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lercher, P., Stansfeld, S., & Thompson, S. J. (1998). Non-auditory health effects of noise: Review of the 1993-1998 period. In N. L. Carter & R.F.S Job (Eds.), Noise Effects 98: Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem, Sydney (pp. 213-221). Sydney, Australia: Noise Effects ’98.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lercher, P., & Widmann, U. (1993). Factors determining community response to road traffic noise. In M. Vallet (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (pp. 201-204). Nice, France: Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Securite.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maier, S. F., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1976). Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 105, 3–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Matute, H. (1994). Learned helplessness and superstitious behaviorasopposite effectsofuncontrollable reinforcement in humans. Learning and Motivation, 25, 216–232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, A.D., & Tarpy, R. M. (1991). Effects of learned helplessness training oninstrumental Heart rate control in humans. Learning and Motivation, 22, 388–405.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, III, I. W., & Norman, W. H. (1979). Learned helplessness in humans: A review and attribution-theory model. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 93–118.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, W. R., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Depression and learned helplessness in man. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 228–238.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Minor, T. R., Dess, N. K., & Overmier, J. B. (1991). Inverting the traditional view of “learned helplessness.” In M. R. Denny (Ed.), Fear, avoidance, and phobias: A fundamental analysis (pp. 87-133). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moldofsky, H., Lue, F. A., Davidson, J. R., & Gorczynski, R. M. (1989). Effects of sleep deprivation on Human immune functions. FASEB Journal 3, 1972–1977.

  • Mowrer, O. H., & Viek, P. (1948). An experimental analogue of fear froma sense ofhelplessness. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 43, 193–200.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Neus, H., Ruddel H., & Schulte, W. (1983). Traffic noise and hypertension. The Bonn traffic noise study. In G. Rossi (Ed.), Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (pp. 694–698).

  • Nivison, M. E., & Endresen, I. M. (1993). An analysis of the relationships among environmental noise, annoyance and sensitivity tonoise and the consequences for health and sleep, Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 257–276.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • ÖHrström, E. (1989). Sleep disturbance, psycho-social and medical symptoms-a pilot survey among persons exposedtohigh levelsofroad traffic noise. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 133, 117–128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • ÖHrström, E. (1991). Psycho-social effects of traffic noise exposure. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 151, 513–517.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • ÖHrström, E. (1993). Long-term effects in terms of psychosocial wellbeing, annoyance and sleep disturbanceinareas exposedtohigh levelsoftraffic noise. In M. Vallet (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (pp. 209-212). Arcueil Cedex, France: INRETS.

    Google Scholar 

  • Overmier, J. B. (1988). Psychological determinants of when stressors stress. In D. Hellhammer, I. Florin, & H. Weiner (Eds.), Neurobiological approaches to human disease. Toronto: Hans Huber.

    Google Scholar 

  • Overmier, J. B., & HellHammer, D. H. (1988). The learned helplessness model of human depression. Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorder, 2, 177–202.

    Google Scholar 

  • Palmblad, J., Kantell, K., Strander, H., Froberg, J., Karlsson, C-G., Levi, L., Ganstrom, M., & Unger, P. (1976). Stressor exposure and immunological response in man: interferon-producing capacity and phagocytosis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 20, 193–199.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peploe, P. (1996). Sydney Airport Health StudyAssessment and calculation of aircraft noise exposure. NAL Commissioned Report No. 133. Sydney, Australia: National Acoustic Laboratories.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, C., Maier, S. F., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1993). Learned helplessness: A theory for the age of personal control. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Romero, J., & Lliso, D. (1995). Perception and acoustic conditions in secondary Spanish schools. In M. Newman (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Acoustics (pp. 271-274). Trondheim: TAPIR.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rotenberg, V. S. (1996). Learned helplessness and sleep: Discussion of contradictions. Homeostasis in Health & Disease, 37, 89–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roth, S., & Kubal, L. (1975). Effects of noncontingent reinforcement on tasks of differing importance: Facilitation and learned helplessness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 680–691.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schmeck, K., & Poustka, F. (1993). Psychiatric and psychophysiological disorders in children living in a military jet-fighter training area. In M. Vallet (Ed.), The 6th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (pp.477-480). Arcuil Cedex, France: INRETS.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seligman, M.E.P. (1975) Helplessness: On depression, development and death. New York: W.H. Freeman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seligman, M.E.P. (1991). Learned optimism. Sydney, Australia: Random House.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seligman, M.E.P., & Binik, Y. (1977). The safety signal hypothesis. In H. Davis & H.M.B. Hurwitz (Eds.), Operant-Pavlovian interactions (pp. 000-000). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seligman, M. E. P., & Vinsintainer, M. (1985). Tumor rejection and early experience of uncontrollable shock in the rat. In F. R. Brush & J. B. Overmier, (Eds.), Affect, conditioning and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior (pp.203-210). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sklar, L. S., & Anisman, H. (1979). Stress and coping factors influence tumor growth. Science, 205, 513–515.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stansfeld, S. A. (1992). Noises, noise sensitivity and psychiatric disorder: Epidemiological and psychophysical studies. Psychological Medicine, Monograph Suppl. 22.

  • Stansfeld, S. A., & Haines, M. M. (1997). The Schools Environment and Health Studypilot study report on tests conducted between March 1996 and July 1996. A report for the public inquiry into the application by BAA plc and Heathrow Airport Limited for the development of a fifth terminal and associated facilities at Heathrow Airport.

  • Stansfeld, S.A., Gallacher, J., Babisch, W., & Shipley, M. (1996). Road traffic noise and psychiatric disorder: prospective findings from the Caerphilly Study. British Medical Journal, 313, 266–277.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tarnopolsky, A., Barker, S. M., Wiggins, R. D., & McLean, E. K. (1978). The effect of aircraft noise on the mental Health of a community sample: A pilot study. Psychological Medicine, 8, 219–233.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tarnopolsky, A., Watkins, G., & Hand, D. J. (1980). Aircraft noise and mental health: I. Prevalence of individual symptoms. Psychological Medicine, 10, 683–698.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tiggeman, M. (1981). Noncontingent success versus noncontingent failure and learned helplessness. Journal of Psychology, 109, 233–238.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tiggeman, M., Barnett, A., & Winefield, A.H. (1983). Uncontrollability versus perceived failureas determinants of subsequent performance deficits. Motivation and Emotion, 7, 257–268.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tiggeman, M., & Winefield, A. H. (1978). Situation similarity and the generalization of learned helplessness. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 30, 725–735.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tiggeman, M., & Winefield, A. H. (1987). Predictability and timing of self-report in learned helplessness experiments, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 253–264.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Toth, L., & Krueger, J. M. (1988a). Alterationof sleep inrabbits by staphylococcus aureus infection. Infection and Immunity, 56, 1785–1791.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Toth, L., & Krueger, J.M. (1988b). Effects of microbial challenge on sleep inrabbits. FASEB Journal 3, 2062–2066.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Kamp, I. (1990). Coping with noise and its health consequences. Groningen: Styx & PP Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vinsintainer, M., Volpicelli, J., & Seligman, M.E.P. (1982) Tumor rejection in rats after inescapable or escapable shock. Science, 216, 437–439.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Willner, P. (1984). The validity of animal models of depression. Psychopharmacology, 83, 1–22.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Willner, P. (1986). Validation criteria for animal models of human mental disorders: Learned helplessness as a paradigm case. Progress in Neuro-Psycholpharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 10, 677–690.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Winefield, A. H. (1982). Methodological difficulties in demonstrating learned helplessness. Journal of General Psychology, 107, 255–266.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Winefield, A. H. (1983). Cognitive performance deficits induced by exposure to response-independent positive outcomes. Motivation and Emotion, 7, 145–155.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Winefield, A. H., Barnett, A., & Tiggeman, M. (1985). Learned helplessness deficits: Uncontrollable outcomes or perceived failure? Motivation and Emotion, 9, 185–195.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Winefield, A.H., & Fay, P.M. (1982). Effects of an institutional environment on responses to uncontrollable outcomes. Motivation and Emotion, 6, 103–112.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Winefield, A. H., & Jardine, E. (1982). Effects of differences in achievement motivation and amount of exposure on responses to uncontrollable rewards. Motivation and Emotion, 16, 245–257.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yoshida, T., Osada, Y., Kawaguchi, T., Hoshiyama, Y., Yoshida, K., & Yamamoto, K. (1997). Effects of road traffic noise on inhabitants of Tokyo. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 205, 517–522.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Julie Hatfield.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hatfield, J., Job, R.S., Hede, A.J. et al. Human response to environmental noise: The role of perceived control. Int. J. Behav. Med. 9, 341–359 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327558IJBM0904_04

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327558IJBM0904_04

Key words

  • learned helplessness
  • uncontrollability
  • noise disturbance
  • sleep disturbance
  • effects of noise