Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 310–319 | Cite as

Motivational versus social cognitive interventions for promoting fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in African American Adolescents

  • Dawn K. Wilson
  • Ronald Friend
  • Nicole Teasley
  • Sabra Green
  • Irvine Lee Reaves
  • Domenic A. Sica


Strategic self-presentation (motivational intervention [MI]) is a theoretical approach that is distinct from social cognitive theory (SCT). Specifically, strategic self-presentation involves increasing motivation by creating cognitive dissonance and inducing shifts in self-concept by generating positive coping strategies during a videotaped session. Fifty-three healthy African American adolescents were randomized to a SCT + MI, SCT-only, or an education-only group for increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and physical activity. The SCT + MI and SCT-only groups received a 12-week SCT program. Students in the SCT+ MI group also participated in a strategic self-presentation videotape session. Participantscompleted3-dayfoodrecords, completedmeasures of self-concept and self-efficacy, and wore an activity monitor for 4 days atpre-and posttreatment. Both the SCT+MI (2.6 ± 1.4vs. 5.7 ± 2.2, p<. 05) andthe SCT-only (2.5 ± 1.2 vs. 4.8 ± 2.4, p <. 05) groups showed greater increases in F&V intake from pre-to posttreatment as compared with the education-only group (2.3 ± 1.0, vs. 3.3 ± 2.1, p > .05). There were no significant time or group effects for any of the physical activity measures. Correlation analyses revealed that only the SCT + MI group showed that dietary self-concept (r = .58,r = .67,p<.05) and dietary self-efficacy (r = .65, r = .85, p < .05) were significantly correlated with posttreatment F&V intake and change in F&V intake, respectively. These findings suggest that the change in F&V intake in the SCT + MI group resulted from strategic self-presentation, which induced positive shifts in self-concept and self-efficacy.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. (1).
    Cardiovascular Disease Statistics. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association, 1999.Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    Gillum RF: Cardiovascular disease in the United States: An epidemiologic overview. In Saunders E (ed),Cardiovascular Diseases in Blacks. Philadelphia: Davis, 1991, 3–16.Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    Greenland P, Hayman LL: Making cardiovascular disease prevention a reality.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1997,19:193–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. (4).
    Kokkinos PF, Narayan P, Colleran JA, et al.: Effects of regular exercise on blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy in African-American men with severe hypertension.New England Journal of Medicine. 1995,333:1462–1467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. (5).
    Lipid Research Clinics Program: The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial results. I. Reduction in incidence of coronary heart disease.Journal of the American Medical Association. 1984,251:351–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. (6).
    Manninen V, Elo MO, Frick MH, et al.: Lipid alterations and decline in the incidence of coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study.Journal of the American Medical Association. 1988,260:641–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. (7).
    Roussouw JE: The effects of lowering serum cholesterol on coronary heart disease risk.Medical Clinics of North America. 1994,78:181–195.Google Scholar
  8. (8).
    Cullen KW, Koehly LM, Anderson C, et al.: Gender differences in chronic disease risk behaviors through the transition out of high school.American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1999,17:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. (9).
    Gortmaker SL, Cheung LW, Peterson KE, et al.: Impact of a school-based interdisciplinary intervention on diet and physical activity among urban primary school children: Eat well and keep moving.Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 1999,153:975–983.Google Scholar
  10. (10).
    Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Resnick MD, Blum RW: Lessons learned about adolescent nutrition from the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey.Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1998,98:1449–1456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. (11).
    Sallis JF, Owen N:Physical Activity and Behavioral Medicine. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999.Google Scholar
  12. (12).
    Bandura A:Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Engle-wood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986.Google Scholar
  13. (13).
    Edmundson E, Parcel GS, Feldman HA, et al.: The effects of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health upon psychosocial determinants of diet and physical activity behavior.Preventive Medicine. 1996,25:442–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. (14).
    Luepker RV, Perry CL, McKinlay SM, et al.: Outcomes of a field trial to improve children’s dietary patterns and physical activity: The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health.Journal of the American Medical Association. 1996,275:768–776.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. (15).
    Stone EJ, Osganian SK, McKinlay SM, et al.: Operational design and quality control in the CATCH Multicenter Trial.Preventive Medicine. 1996,25:384–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. (16).
    DISC Collaborative Research Group: Cholesterol-lowering diet is effective and safe in children with elevated LDL-cholesterol: Three-year results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC).Circulation. 1994,90:I-8, 39A.Google Scholar
  17. (17).
    Eitel P, Friend R: Reducing denial of STD and HIV risk in college students: A comparison of a cognitive and motivational approach.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1999,21:12–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. (18).
    Leake R, Friend R, Wadhwa N: Improving adjustment to chronic illness through strategic self-presentation: An experimental study on a renal dialysis unit.Health Psychology. 1999,18:54–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. (19).
    Goffman E:The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Rev. Ed.). New York: Doubleday, 1959.Google Scholar
  20. (20).
    Lewin K: Group decision and social change. In Maccoby EE, Newcomb TM, Hartley EL (eds),Readings in Social Psychology. New York: Holt, 1958, 197–212.Google Scholar
  21. (21).
    Schlenker, BR:Impression Management: The Self-Concept, Social Identity, and Interpersonal Relations. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1980.Google Scholar
  22. (22).
    Schlenker BR, Dlugolecki DW, Doherty K: The impact of self-presentations on self-appraisals and behavior: The power of public commitment.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1994,66:20–33.Google Scholar
  23. (23).
    Aronson E, Fried CB, Stone J: Overcoming denial and increasing the intention to use condoms through the induction of hypocrisy.American Journal of Public Health. 1991,81:1636–1638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. (24).
    Bem DJ: Self-perception theory. In Berkowitz L (ed),Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 6). New York: Academic, 1972, 1–62.Google Scholar
  25. (25).
    Brehm JW, Cohen AR:Explorations on Cognitive Dissonance. New York: Wiley, 1962.Google Scholar
  26. (26).
    Kiesler CA:The Psychology of Commitment. New York: Academic, 1971.Google Scholar
  27. (27).
    Rhodewalt F: Self-presentation and the phenomenal self: The "carryover effect" revisited. In Cooper J, Darley JM (eds),Attributional Processes, Person Perception, and Social Interaction: The Legacy of Edward E. Jones. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1998, 373–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. (28).
    Fazio RH, Zanna MP, Cooper J: Dissonance and self-perception: An integrated view of each theory’s proper domain of application.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 1977,13:464–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. (29).
    Jones EE, Rhodewalt F, Berglas S, Skelton JA: Effects of strategic self-presentation on subsequent self-esteem.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1981,41:407–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. (30).
    Schlenker BR: Self-identification: Toward an integration of the public and private self. In Baumeister RF (ed),Public Self and Private Self. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986, 21–62.Google Scholar
  31. (31).
    Tedeschi JT, Norman N: Social power, self-presentation, and the self. In Schlenker BR (ed),The Self in Social Life. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985, 293–322.Google Scholar
  32. (32).
    Festinger L:A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson, 1957.Google Scholar
  33. (33).
    Wicklund RA, Brehm JW:Perspectives on Cognitive Dissonance. Hillsdale,NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1976.Google Scholar
  34. (34).
    Rhodewalt F, Agustsdottir S: Effects of self-presentation on the phenomenal self.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1986,50:47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. (35).
    Lewin K: Forces behind food habits and methods of change.Bulletin of the National Research Council. 1943,108:35–65.Google Scholar
  36. (36).
    Radke M, Klisurich D: Experiments in changing food habits.Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1947,24:190–207.Google Scholar
  37. (37).
    Aronson E: Persuasion via self-justification: Large commitments for small rewards. In Festinger L (ed),Retrospectives in Social Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980, 3–21.Google Scholar
  38. (38).
    Mills J: Changes in moral attitudes following temptation.Journal of Personality. 1958,26:517–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. (39).
    Axsom D: Cognitive dissonance and behavior change in psychotherapy.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 1989,25:234–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. (40).
    Axsom D, Cooper J: Cognitive dissonance and psychotherapy: The role of effort justification in inducing weight loss.Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology. 1985,21:149–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. (41).
    Wankel LM, Yardley JK, Graham J: The effects of motivational interventions upon the exercise adherence of high and low self-motivated adults.Canadian Journal of Applied Sports Science. 1985,10:147–156.Google Scholar
  42. (42).
    Marlatt GA, Gordon JR:Relapse Prevention. New York: Guilford, 1985.Google Scholar
  43. (43).
    Miller W, Rollnick S:Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People to Change Addictive Behavior. New York: Guilford, 1991.Google Scholar
  44. (44).
    Wilson DK, Sica DA, Miller SB: Effects of potassium intake on blood pressure in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant black adolescents.Hypertension. 1999,34:181–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. (45).
    Sallis JF, Pinski RB, Grossman RM, Patterson TL, Nader PR: The development of self-efficacy scales for health-related diet and exercise behaviors.Health Education Research: Theory & Practice. 1988,3:283–292.Google Scholar
  46. (46).
    Wilson DK, Friend R, Reeves L, et al.: Effects of social-cognitive vs. motivational interventions on diet and exercise in black adolescents.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2000,22(Suppl.):S132.Google Scholar
  47. (47).
    Wilson DK, Friend R, Reeves L, et al.: The role of self-concept in changing FV intake and exercise in African-American adolescents.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2001,23(Suppl.):S86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. (48).
    Freedson PS, Sirard J, Debold E, et al.: Calibration of the Computer Science and Applications Inc. (CSA) accelerometer.Medicine Science Sports and Exercise. 1997,29(Suppl.):S45.Google Scholar
  49. (49).
    Trost SG, Ward DS, Moorehead PD, et al.: Validity of the Computer Science and Applications (CSA) activity monitor in children.Medicine Science Sports and Exercise. 1998,30:629–633.Google Scholar
  50. (50).
    Freedson PS, Melanson E, Sirard J: Calibration of Computer Science and Applications, Inc. accelerometer.Medicine Science Sports and Exercise. 1998,30:777–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. (51).
    Feskanich D, Buzzard IM, Welch BT, et al.: Comparison of a computerized and a manual method of food coding for nutrient intake studies.Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1988,88:1263–1267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. (52).
    Wilson DK, Sica DA, Devens M, Nicholson SC: The influence of potassium intake on dipper and nondipper blood pressure status in an African-American adolescent population.Blood Pressure Monitoring. 1996,1:447–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. (53).
    Sallis JF, Patrick K: Physical activity guidelines for adolescents: Consensus statement.Pediatric Exercise Science. 1994,6:302–314.Google Scholar
  54. (54).
    Brown, B: Peer Groups. In Feldman S, Elliott G (eds),At the Threshold: The Developing Adolescent. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990, 171–196.Google Scholar
  55. (55).
    Brown B, Huang B: In Crocket LJ, Crouter AC (eds),Pathways Through Adolescence. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1995, 151–174.Google Scholar
  56. (56).
    Brooks-Gunn J: Why do adolescents have difficulty adhering to health regimes? In Krasnegor NA, Epstein L, Johnson SB, Yaffe SJ (eds),Developmental Aspects of Health Compliance Behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1993, 125–152.Google Scholar
  57. (57).
    Baranowski T, Cullen KW, Baranowski J: Psychosocial correlates of dietary intake: Advancing dietary intervention.Annual Review of Nutrition. 1999,19:17–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. (58).
    Resnicow K, Jackson A, Wang T, Dudley W, Baranowski T: A motivational interviewing intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake through Black churches: Results of the Eat for Life Trial.American Journal of Public Health. 2001,9:1686–1693.Google Scholar
  59. (59).
    Goodrick GK, Pendleton VR, Kimball, KT, et al.: Binge eating severity, self-concept, dieting self-efficacy and social support during treatment of binge eating disorder.International Journal of Eating Disorders. 1999,26:295–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. (60).
    Heatey KR, Thombs DL: Fruit-vegetable consumption self-efficacy in youth.American Journal of Health Behavior. 1997,21:172–177.Google Scholar
  61. (61).
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services:Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000.Google Scholar
  62. (62).
    Hovell MF, Hofstetter CR, Sallis JF, Rauh MJD, Barrington E: Correlates of change in walking for exercise: An exploratory analysis.Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1992,63:425–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. (63).
    Sallis JF, Johnson MF, Calfas KJ, Caparosa S, Nichols JF: Assessing perceived physical environmental variables that may influence physical activity.Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1997,68:345–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dawn K. Wilson
    • 1
  • Ronald Friend
    • 2
  • Nicole Teasley
    • 3
  • Sabra Green
    • 3
  • Irvine Lee Reaves
    • 4
  • Domenic A. Sica
    • 5
  1. 1.Prevention Research Center, and Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, Norman J. Arnold School of Public HealthUniversity of South CarolinaColumbia
  2. 2.State University of New York at Stony BrookUSA
  3. 3.Medical College of VirginiaVirginia Commonwealth UniversityUSA
  4. 4.Team-Up Richmond RichmondVirginia
  5. 5.Medical College of VirginiaVirginia Commonwealth UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations