Advertisement

International Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 152–163 | Cite as

Couch kids: Correlates of television viewing among youth

  • Trish Gorely
  • Simon J. Marshall
  • Stuart J. H. Biddle
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to review the published empirical correlates of television/video viewing among youth (2 to 18 years). A descriptive semi-quantitative review was conducted based on 68 primary studies. Variables consistently associated with TV/video viewing were ethnicity (non-white +), parent income (-), parent education (-), body weight (+), between meal snacking (+), number of parents in the house (-), parents TV viewing habits (+), weekend (+) and having a TV in the bedroom (+). Variables consistently unrelated to TV/video viewing were sex, other indicators of socio-economic status, body fatness, cholesterol levels, aerobic fitness, strength, other indicators of fitness, self-perceptions, emotional support, physical activity, other diet variables, and being an only child. Few modifiable correlates have been identified. Further research should aim to identify modifiable correlates of TV/video viewing if interventions are to be successfully tailored to reduce this aspect of inactivity among youth.

Key words

television viewing correlates determinants youth 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Academy of Pediatrics (2001). Policy statement: Children, adolescents and television (RE0043). Pediatrics, 107, 423–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anastassea-Vlachou, K., Fryssira-Kanioura, H., Xipolita-Zach-ariadi, A., & Matsaniotis, N. (1996). The effects of television viewing in Greece, and the role of the paediatrician: A familiar triangle revisited. European Journal of Pediatrics, 155, 1057–1060.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen, R. E., Crespo, C. J., Bartlett, S. J., Cheskin, L. J., & Pratt, M. (1998). Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 938–942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baranowski, T., Anderson, C., & Carmack, C. (1998). Mediating frameworks in physical activity interventions: How are we doing? How might we do better? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 15, 266–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bar-Or, O., Foreyt, J., Bouchard, C., Brownell, K. D., Dietz, W. H., Ravussin, E., Salbe, A. D., Schwenger, S., St Jeor, S. & Torun, B. (1998). Physical activity, genetic and nutritional considerations in childhood weight management. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30, 2–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bianchi, S., & Robinson, J. (1997). What did you do today? Children’s use of time, family composition and the acquisition of social capital. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 332–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Biddle, S. J. H., Sallis, J. F., & Cavill, N. E. (Eds.). (1998). Young and active? Young people and health enhancing physical activity — Evidence and implications. London: Health Education Authority.Google Scholar
  8. Blair, S. N., Kohl, H. W., Gordon, N. F., & Paffenbarger, R. (1992). How much physical activity is good for health? Annual Reviews of Public Health, 13, 99–126.Google Scholar
  9. Borzekowski, D. L., & Robinson, T. N. (2001). The 30-second effect: An experiment revealing the impact of television commercials on food preferences or preschoolers. Journal of American Dietetic Association, 101, 42–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bungum, T. J., & Vincent, M. L. (1997). Determinants of physical activity among female adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 13, 115–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Carpenter, C. J., Huston, A. C., & Spera, L. (1989). Children’s use of time in their everyday activities during middle childhood. In M. Bloch & A. Pellegrini (Eds.), The ecological context of children’s play (pp. 165-190). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  12. Certain, L. K., & Kahn, R. S. (2002). Prevalence, correlates, and trajectory of television viewing among infants and toddlers. Pediatrics, 109, 634–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Charlton, T., Gunter, B., & Hannan, A. (2002). Broadcast television effects in a remote community. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  14. Chinn, S., & Rona, R. J. (2001). Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity in three cross-sectional studies of British children. British Medical Journal, 322, 24–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clancy-Hepburn, K., Hickey, A. A., & Nevill, G. (1974). Children’s behaviour responses to TV food advertisements. Journal of Nutrition Education, 6(3), 93–96.Google Scholar
  16. Cooper, H. (1998). Synthesising research: A guide for literature reviews. (3rd ed.) London: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Dietz, W. H., & Gortmaker, S. L. (1985). Do we fatten our children at the television set? Obesity and television viewing in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 75, 807–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. DuRant, R. H., Baranowski, T., Johnson, M., & Thompson, W. O. (1994). The relationship among television watching, physical activity, and body composition of young children. Pediatrics, 94, 449–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. DuRant, R. H., Thompson, W. O., Johnson, M., & Baranowski, T. (1996). The relationship among television watching, physical activity, and body composition of 5-or 6-year-old children. Pe — diatric Exercise Science, 8, 15–26.Google Scholar
  20. Epstein, L. H., & Roemmich, J. N. (2001). Reducing sedentary behaviour: Role in modifying physical activity. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 29, 103–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Epstein, L. H., Smith, J. A., Vara, L. S., & Rodefer, J. S. (1991). Behavioral economic analysis of activity choice in obese children. Health Psychology, 10, 311–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Flegal, K. M. (1999). The obesity epidemic in children and adults: Current evidence and research issues. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(Suppl.), S509-S514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. French, S. A., Story, M., & Jeffery, R. W. (2001). Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Annual Reviews of Public Health, 22, 309–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frenne, L. M. D., Zaragozano, J. F., Otero, J. M. G., Aznar, L. M., & Sanchez, M. B. (1997). Physical activity and leisure time in children. II: Relationship with dietary habits. Annals Espana Pediatrics, 46, 126–132.Google Scholar
  25. Galst, J. P., & White, M. A. (1976). The unhealthy persuader: the reinforcing value of television and children’s purchase-influencing attempts at the supermarket. Child Development, 47, 1089–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gordon-Larsen, P., McMurray, R. G., & Popkin, B. M. (1999). Adolescent physical activity and inactivity vary by ethnicity: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The Journal of Pediatrics, 135, 301–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gordon-Larsen, P., McMurray, R. G., & Popkin, B. M. (2000). Determinants of adolescent physical activity and inactivity patterns. Pediatrics, 105, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gortmaker, S. L., Must, A., Sobol, A. M., Peterson, K., Colditz, G. A., & Dietz, W. H. (1996). Television viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in the United States, 1986-1990. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 150, 356–362.Google Scholar
  29. Gracey, D., Stanley, N., Burke, V., Corti, B., & Beilin, L. J. (1996). Nutritional knowledge, beliefs and behaviours in teenage school students. Health Education Research, 11, 187–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grund, A., Krause, H., Siewers, M., Rieckert, H., & Muller, M. J. (2001). Is TV viewing an index of physical activity and fitness in overweight and normal weight children? Public Health Nutrition, 4, 1245–1251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guillaume, M., Lapidus, L., Bjorntorp, P., & Lambert, A. (1997). Physical activity, obesity, and cardiovascular risk factors in children: The Belgian Luxembourg Child Study II. Obesity Research, 5, 549–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gupta, R. K., Saini, D. P., Acharya, U., & Miglani, N. (1994). Impact of television on children. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 61, 153–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hall Jamieson, K. (1996). Children/parents: Television in the home. Retrieved July 20, 2000, from the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Web site: http://www.appcpenn.orgGoogle Scholar
  34. Hernandez, B., Gortmaker, S. L., Colditz, G. A., Peterson, K. E., Laird, N. M., & Parra-Cabrera, S. (1999). Association of obesity with physical activity, television programs and other forms of video viewing among children in Mexico City. International Journal of Obesity, 23, 845–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Himmelweit, H., Oppenheim, A., & Vince, P. (1958). Television and the child. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Hofferth, S. L., & Sandberg, J. F. (2001). How American children spend their time. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 295–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Horn, O. K., Paradis, G., Potvin, L., Macaulay, A. C., & Desrosiers, S. (2001). Correlates and predictors of adiposity among Mohawk children. Preventive Medicine, 33, 274–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Huston, A. C., Wright, J. C., Marquis, J., & Green, S. B. (1999). How young children spend their time: Television and other activities. Developmental Psychology, 35, 912–925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Janz, K. F., Dawson, J. D., & Mahoney, L. T. (2000). Tracking physical fitness and physical activity from childhood to adolescence: The Muscatine Study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 1250–1257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Janz, K. F., & Mahoney, L. T. (1997). Maturation, gender, and video game playing are related to physical activity intensity in adolescents: The Muscatine Study. Pediatric Exercise Science, 9, 353–363.Google Scholar
  41. Katzmarzyk, P. T., & Malina, R. M. (1998). Contribution of organized sports participation to estimated daily energy expenditure in youth. Pediatric Exercise Science, 10, 378–386.Google Scholar
  42. Katzmarzyk, P. T., Malina, R. M., Song, T. M. K., & Bouchard, C. (1998a). Physical activity and health-related fitness in youth: A multivariate analysis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30, 709–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Katzmarzyk, P. T., Malina, R. M., Song, T. M. K., & Bouchard, C. (1998b). Television viewing, physical activity, and health-related fitness of youth in the Québec Family Study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 23, 318–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kimm, S. Y. S., Obarzanek, E., Barton, B. A., Aston, C. E., Similo, S. L., Morrison, et al. (1996). Race, socioeconomic status, and obesity in 9- to 10-year-old girls: The NHLBI growth and health study. Annals of Epidemiology, 6(4), 266–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lasheras, L., Aznar, S., Merino, B., & Lopez, E. (2001). Factors associated with physical activity among Spanish youth through the National Health Survey. Preventive Medicine, 32, 455–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lawrence, F. C., Tasker, G. E., Daly, C. T., Orhiel, A. L., & Wozniak, P. H. (1986). Adolescents time spent viewing television. Adolescence, XXI(82), 431–436.Google Scholar
  47. Lewis, M. K., & Hill, A. J. (1998). Food advertising on British children’s television:Acontent analysis and experimental study with nine-year olds. International Journal of Obesity, 22, 206–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lindquist, C. H., Reynolds, K. D., & Goran, M. I. (1999). Sociocultural determinants of physical activity among children. Preventive Medicine, 29, 305–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Locard, E., Mamelle, N., Billette, A., Miginiac, M., Munoz, F., & Rey, S. (1992). Risk factors of obesity in a five year old population: Parental versus environmental factors. International Journal of Obesity, 16, 721–729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lyle, J., & Hoffman, H. (1972). Children’s use of television and other media. In E. Rubenstein, G. Comstock, & J. Murray (Eds.), Television and social behavior. Reports and papers, volume IV: Television in day-to-day life: patterns of use (pp. 129-256). Rockville, Maryland: National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
  51. Maffeis, C., Zaffanello, M., & Schutz, Y. (1997). Relationship between physical inactivity and adiposity in prepubertal boys. Journal of Pediatrics, 131, 288–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Marshall, S. J., Biddle, S. J. H., Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T. L., & Conway, T. L. (2002). Clustering of sedentary behaviours and physical activity among youth: A cross-national study. Pediatric Exercise Science, 14, 401–417.Google Scholar
  53. McGuire, M. T., Neumark-Sztainer, D. R., & Story, M. (2002). Correlates of time spent in physical activity and television viewing in a multi-racial sample of adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 14, 75–86.Google Scholar
  54. Meeks, C. B., & Mauldin, T. (1990). Children’s time in structured and unstructured leisure activities. Lifestyles: Family and Economic Issues, 11, 257–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Muller, M. J., Koertringer, I., Mast, M., Langnase, K., & Grund, A. (1999). Physical activity and diet in 5 to 7 year old children. Public Health Nutrition, 2(3a), 443–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Murray, J. P., & Kippax, S. (1978). Children’s social behavior in three towns with differing television experience. Journal of Communication (Winter), 19–29.Google Scholar
  57. Mutz, D. C., Roberts, D. F., & Vuuren, D. P. (1993). Reconsidering the displacement hypothesis. Television’s influence on children’s time use. Communication Research, 20, 51–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Myers, L., Strikmiller, P. K., Webber, L. S., & Berenson, G. S. (1996). Physical and sedentary activity in school children grades 5-8: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 852–859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Owen, N., Leslie, E., Salmon, J., & Fotheringham, M. J. (2000). Environmental determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 28(4), 165–170.Google Scholar
  60. Pate, R. R., Trost, S. G., Dowda, M., Ott, A. E., Ward, D. S., Saunders, R., et al. (1999). Tracking of physical activity, physical inactivity, and health-related physical fitness in rural youth. Pediatric Exercise Science, 11, 364–376.Google Scholar
  61. Raitakari, O. T., Porkka, K. V. K., Taimela, S., Telama, R., Rasanen, L., & Viikari, J. S. A. (1994). Effects of persistent physical activity and inactivity on coronary risk factors in children and young adults: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 140, 195–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Roberts, D., Foehr, U., Rideout, V., & Brodie, M. (1999). Kids & media the new millennium. Retrieved July 20, 2000, from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Web site: http://www.kff.orgGoogle Scholar
  63. Robinson, T. N., Hammer, L. D., Killen, J. D., Kraemer, H. C., Wilson, D. M., Hayward, C., et al. (1993). Does television viewing increase obesity and reduce physical activity? Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses among adolescent girls. Pediatrics, 91, 273–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Robinson, T. N., & Killen, J. D. (1995). Ethnic and gender differences in the relationships between television viewing and obesity, physical activity, and dietary fat intake. Journal of Health Education, 26 (Suppl.), S91-S98.Google Scholar
  65. Sallis, J. F., & Owen, N. (1999). Physical activity and behavioral medicine. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  66. Sallis, J., Prochaska, J., & Taylor, W. (2000). A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 963–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Sallis, J. F., Nader, P. R., Broyles, S. L., Berry, C. C., Elder, J. P., McKenzie, T. L., et al. (1993). Correlates of physical activity at home in Mexican-American and Anglo-American preschool children. Health Psychology, 12, 390–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sallis, J. F., Zakarian, J. M., Hovell, M. F., & Hofstetter, C. R. (1996). Ethnic, socioeconomic, and sex differences in physical activity among adolescents. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 49, 125–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schmitt, H. J. (1993). Does television viewing increase obesity and reduce physical activity? Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses among adolescent girls. European Journal of Pediatrics, 152, 619–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schramm, W., Lyle, J., & Parker, E. (1961). Television in the lives of our children. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Sekine, M., Yamagami, T., Handa, K., Saito, T., Nanri, S., Kawaminami, K., et al. (2002). A dose-response relationship between short sleeping hours and childhood obesity: Results of the Toyama Birth Cohort Study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 28, 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shann, M. H. (2001). Students’ use of time outside of school: A case for after school programs for urban middle school youth. The Urban Review, 33, 339–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shannon, B., Peacock, J., & Brown, M. J. (1991). Body fatness, television viewing and calorie-intake of a sample of Pennsylvania sixth grade children. Journal of Nutrition Education, 23, 262–268.Google Scholar
  74. Slemenda, C. W., Miller, J. Z., Hui, S. L., Reister, T. K., & Johnston, C. C. (1991). Role of physical activity in the development of skeletal mass in children. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 6, 1227–1233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stafford, M., Wells, J. C. K., & Fewtrell, M. (1998). Letter to the editor: Television watching and fatness in children. Journal of American Medical Association, 280(14), 1231.Google Scholar
  76. Stanger, J. (1997). Television in the home: The 1997 survey of parents and children. Retrieved July 20, 2000, from the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Web site: http://www.appcpenn.orgGoogle Scholar
  77. Stanger, J. (1998). Media in the Home 1998: The third annual survey of parents and children. Retrieved July 20, 2000, from the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Web site: http://www.appcpenn.orgGoogle Scholar
  78. Stephens, T., & Craig, C. (1990). The well-being of Canadians: Highlights of the 1988 Campbell’s survey. Ottawa: Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute.Google Scholar
  79. Tanasescu, M., Ferris, A. M., Himmelgreen, D. A., Rodriguez, N., & Perez-Escamilla, R. (2000). Biobehavioural factors are associated with obesity in Puerto Rican children. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 1734–1742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Taras, H. L., Sallis, J. F., Patterson, T. L., Nader, P. R., & Nelson, J. A. (1989). Television’s influence on children’s diet and physical activity. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 10(4), 176–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Timmer, S. G., Eccles, J., & O’Brien, K. (1985). How children use time. In F. T. Juster & F. P. Stafford (Eds.), Time, goods, and well-being (pp. 353-382). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  82. Troiano, R. P., Flegal, K. M., Kuczmarski, R. J., Campbell, S.M., & Johnson, C. L. (1995). Overweight prevalence and trends for children and adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 149, 1085–1091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1996). Physical activity and health: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.Google Scholar
  84. Vara, L. S., & Epstein, L. H. (1993). Laboratory assessment of choice between exercise or sedentary behaviors. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64, 356–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Vilhjalmsson, R., & Thorlindsson, T. (1998). Factors related to physical activity: A study of adolescents. Social Science and Medicine, 47, 665–675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Waller, C., Du, S., & Popkin, B. (2003). Patterns of overweight, inactivity, and snacking in Chinese children. Obesity Research, 11, 957–961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wolf, A. M., Gortmaker, S. L., Cheung, L., Gray, H. M., Herzog, D. B., & Colditz, G. A. (1993). Activity, inactivity, and obesity: Racial, ethnic, and age differences among schoolgirls. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 1625–1627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wong, N. D., Hei, T.K., Qaqundah, P.Y., Davidson, D.M., Bassin, S.L., & Gold, K.V. (1992) Television viewing and pediatric hypercholesterolemia. Pediatrics, 90(1 Pt 1), 75–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Woodard, E., & Gridina, N. (2000). Media in the Home 2000: The fifth annual survey of parents and children. Retrieved March 1, 2001, from the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania Web site: http://www.appcpenn.orgGoogle Scholar
  90. World Health Organisation. (2000). Health and health behaviour among young people. WHO Policy Series: Policy for children and adolescents issue 1. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar
  91. Zakarian, J. M., Hovell, M. F., Hofstetter, C. R., Sallis, J. F., & Keating, K. J. (1994). Correlates of vigorous exercise in a predominantly low SES and minority high school population. Preventive Medicine, 23, 314–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society of Behavioral Medicine 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Trish Gorely
    • 1
  • Simon J. Marshall
    • 2
  • Stuart J. H. Biddle
    • 3
  1. 1.British Heart Foundation National Centre for Physical Activity and Health, School of Sport and Exercise SciencesLoughborough UniversityLoughboroughUK
  2. 2.Department of Exercise and Nutritional SciencesSan Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.British Heart Foundation Centre for Physical Activity and HealthLoughborough UniversityLoughboroughUK

Personalised recommendations