Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 186–193 | Cite as

Construct validity of physical activity and sedentary behaviors staging measures for adolescents

  • Athena S. Hagler
  • Karen J. Calfas
  • Gregory J. Norman
  • James F. Sallis
  • Kevin Patrick


Purpose:To evaluate the construct validity of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) staging measures for adolescents that incorporate the current national recommendations.Method: The Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, Actigraph accelerometer, and self-reported hours of TV viewing served as criterion measures.Participants were 878 adolescents (M age = 12.74, 53.6% girls, 39.9% non-White).Results: The PA staging measure had mixed evidence of convergent validity and strong evidence of divergent validity. The SB staging measure had strong and generalized evidence of convergent validity but weak evidence of divergent validity, which could be related to inaccurate assumptions about the relation of SB to PA and fitness. Results were generally in the expected direction and provide preliminary evidence for the construct validity and generalizability of both staging measures. However, more research is warranted to validate the staging measures with Actigraph-measured PA and sedentary time. Effect sizes (η2 values) Ranged from small to large (.02–.63).Conclusion:PA and SB stage-of-change measures that are congruent with current national recommendations and appropriate for use among adolescents were partially supported for their construct validity.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. (1).
    Hausenblas HA, Nigg CR, Downs DS, Fleming DS, Connaughton, DP: Perceptions of exercise stages, barrier self-efficacy, and decisional balance for middle-level school students.Journal of Early Adolescence.2002,22:436–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. (2).
    Marshall SJ, Biddle SJ: The transtheoretical model of behavior change: A meta-analysis of applications to physical activity and exercise.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2001,23:229–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. (3).
    Nigg CR, Courneya KS: Transtheoretical model: Examining adolescent exercise behavior.Society for Adolescent Medicine. 1998,22:214–224.Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    Schumann A, Nigg CR, Rossi JS, et al.: Construct validity of the stages of change of exercise adoption for different intensities of physical activity in four samples of differing age groups.American Journal of Health Promotion.2002,16:280–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. (5).
    Reed GR, Velicer WF, Prochaska JO, Rossi JS, Marcus BH: What makes a good staging algorithm: Examples from regular exercise.American Journal of Health Promotion.1997,12:57–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. (6).
    National Association for Sports and Exercise:Physical Activity for Children: A Statement of Guidelines Ages 5–12 (2nd Ed.). Reston, VA: Corbin CB, Pangrazzi RP, 2004.Google Scholar
  7. (7).
    Cavill N, Biddle S, Sallis JF: Health enhancing physical activity for young people: Statement of the United Kingdom expert consensus conference.Pediatric Exercise Science.2001,13:12–25.Google Scholar
  8. (8).
    U.S. Department of Agriculture:Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans (5th Ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2000.Google Scholar
  9. (9).
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services:Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health (2nd Ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000.Google Scholar
  10. (10).
    Pate RR, Freedson PS, Sallis JF, et al.: Compliance with physical activity guidelines: Prevalence in a population of children and youth.Annals of Epidemiology.2002,12:303–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. (11).
    Hu FB, Colditz GA,Willett WC, Manson JE: Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women.Journal of the American Medical Association.2003,289:1785–1791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. (12).
    Robinson TN: Reducing children’s television viewing to prevent obesity.Journal of the American Medical Association. 1999,282:1561–1567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. (13).
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services:The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity.Rockville, MD: Office of the Surgeon General, 2001.Google Scholar
  14. (14).
    Sallis JF, Prochaska JJ, Taylor WC: A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.2000,32:963–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. (15).
    Richards-Reed G, Velicer WF, Prochaska JO, Rossi JS, Marcus BH: What makes a good staging algorithm: Examples from regular exercise.American Journal of Health Promotion.1997,12:57–66.Google Scholar
  16. (16).
    DiClementeCProchaskaJFairhurstSet al.: The process of smoking cessation: An analysis of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages of change.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.1991,59:295–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. (17).
    Leger L, Lambert J: A maximal 20-m shuttle run test to predict VO2 max.European Journal of Applied Physiology.1982,49:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. (18).
    Leger L, Mercier D, Gadoury C, Lambert, J: The multistage 20 metre shuttle run test for aerobic fitness.Journal of Sports Sciences. 1988,6:93–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. (19).
    Liu NY, Plowman SA, Looney MA: The reliability and validity of the 20-meter shuttle test in American students 12 to 15 years old.Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport.1992,63:350–365.Google Scholar
  20. (20).
    Trost SG, Ward DS, Moorehead SM, et al.: Validity of the computer science and applications (CSA) activity monitor in children.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.1998,30:629–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. (21).
    Treuth MS, Schmitz K, Catellier DJ, et al.: Defining accelerometer threshold for activity intensities in adolescent girls.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.2004,36:1259–1266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. (22).
    Nichols JF, Morgan CG, Chabot LE, Sallis JF, Calfas KJ: Assessment of physical activity with the Computer Science and Applications, Inc., accelerometer: Laboratory versus field validation.Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport.2000,71:36–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. (23).
    Zabinski MF, Norman GJ, Calfas KC, Sallis JF, Patrick K: Development of adolescent self-report measures for sedentary behavior.Proceedings of the 23rd Society of Behavioral Medicine Conference.Washington, DC: 2002.Google Scholar
  24. (24).
    Cohen J.Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd Ed.).Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1988.Google Scholar
  25. (25).
    Puyau MR, Adolph AL, Vohra A, Butte NF: Validation and calibration of physical activity monitors in children.Obesity Research. 2002,10:150–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. (26).
    Ekelund U, Aman J, Agneta Y, et al.: Physical activity but not energy expenditure is reduced in obese adolescents: A case-control study.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.2002,76:935–941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. (27).
    Epstein LH, Roemmich JN: Reducing sedentary behavior: Role in modifying physical activity.Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. 2001,29:103–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. (28).
    Prochaska JO,Velicer WF: The transtheoretical model of health behavior change.American Journal of Health Promotion.1997,12:38–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. (29).
    Velicer WF, Fava JF, Prochaska JO, et al.: Distribution of smokers by stage in three representative samples.Preventive Medicine. 1995,24:401–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. (30).
    Laforge RG, Velicer WF, Richmond RL, Owen N: Stage distributions for five health behaviors in the United States and Australia.Preventive Medicine.1999,28:61–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Athena S. Hagler
    • 1
  • Karen J. Calfas
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gregory J. Norman
    • 4
  • James F. Sallis
    • 5
  • Kevin Patrick
    • 6
  1. 1.University of California San DiegoLa Jolla
  2. 2.San Diego State University/University of California San Diego Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical PsychologyUSA
  3. 3.Department of Health PromotionSan Diego State UniversityUSA
  4. 4.Department of Family and Preventive MedicineUniversity of California San DiegoUSA
  5. 5.Department of Psychology San Diego State UniversityUSA
  6. 6.Department of Family and Preventive Medicine University of California San DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations