Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 70–79 | Cite as

A review of the outcome expectancy construct in physical activity research

  • David M. Williams
  • Eileen S. Anderson
  • Richard A. Winett


Background: Outcome expectancy is a central construct in social cognitive models of health behavior widely used as frameworks for physical activity research.Purpose: This article provides a review of the outcome expectancy construct and its application to research on physical activity.Methods: Theoretical articles describing definitions and placement of outcome expectancy within social cognitive models, as well as empirical research on outcome expectancy and physical activity, were reviewed.Results: Self-efficacy theory, the transtheoretical model, the theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory differ in their labeling and conceptualization of outcome expectancy but unanimously include expected outcomes of behavior. Preliminary empirical investigation of the role of outcome expectancy in understanding physical activity has yielded mixed results. Positive outcome expectancy appears to be more predictive of physical activity in older adults than in young to middle-aged adults, and personal barriers appear to be the most predictive subtype of negative outcome expectancy. In addition, a small number of studies indicate relations between outcome expectancy and other theoretical variables, including behavioral intention, stage of change, and self-efficacy.Conclusions: Further research on the role of outcome expectancy is necessary to design effective physical activity interventions. New directions in outcome expectancy research could involve (a) expanding the conceptualization of outcome expectancy to include expected outcomes of sedentary behavior and affective responses to physical activity, (b) further examination of potential moderators of the relation between outcome expectancy and physical activity (such as outcome value and outcome proximity), (c) distinguishing between the role of outcome expectancy in behavior onset versus behavior maintenance, (d) examining outcome expectancy as a mechanism of change in environmental intervention approaches, and (e) further analysis of interrelations between outcome expectancy and other social cognitive variables. (Ann Behav Med 2005,29(1):70-79)


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. (1).
    Barnes PM, Schoenborn CA:Physical Activity Among Adults: United States, 2000,No. 333. Hyattsville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, 2003.Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    Bandura A:Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman, 1997.Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC:The Transtheoretical Approach: Crossing the Traditional Boundaries of Therapy. Homewood, IL: Dow-Jones, Irwin, 1984.Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    Ajzen I: The theory of planned behavior.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 1991,50: 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. (5).
    Rogers RW: Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: A revised theory of protection motivation. In Cacioppo JT, Petty RE (eds),Social Psychophysiology: A Sourcebook. New York: Guilford, 1983, 153–176.Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    Barone DF, Maddux JE, Snyder CR:Social Cognitive Psychology: History and Current Domains. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Plenum, 1997.Google Scholar
  7. (7).
    Maddux JE: Social cognitive models of health and exercise behavior: An introduction and review of conceptual issues.Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 1993,5:116–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. (8).
    Maddux JE: Expectancies and the social-cognitive perspective: Basic principles, processes and variables. In Kirsch I (ed),How Expectancies Shape Experience. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1999, 17–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. (9).
    Baranowski T, Anderson C, Carmack C: Mediating variable frameworks in physical activity interventions: How are we doing? How might we do better?American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1998,15:266–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. (10).
    Maddux JE, Brawley L, Boykin A: Self-efficacy and healthy behavior: Prevention, promotion, and detection. In Maddux JE (ed),Self-Efficacy, Adaptation, and Adjustment: Theory Research and Application. New York: Plenum, 1995, 173–202.Google Scholar
  11. (11).
    McAuley E, Courneya KS: Adherence to exercise and physical activity as health-promoting behaviors: Attitudinal and self-efficacy influences.Applied and Preventive Psychology. 1993,2:65–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. (12).
    Schwarzer R: Self-efficacy in the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors: Theoretical approaches and a new model. In Schwarzer R (ed),Self-Efficacy: Thought Control of Action. Washington, DC: Hemisphere, 1992, 217–243.Google Scholar
  13. (13).
    Culos-Reed SN, Gyurcsik NC, Brawley LR: Using theories of motivated behavior to understand physical activity: Perspectives on their influence. In Singer RN, Hausenblas HA, Janelle CM (eds),Handbook of Sport Psychology (2nd Ed.). New York: Wiley, 2001, 695–717.Google Scholar
  14. (14).
    Dawson KA, Gyurcsik NC, Culos-Reed SN, Brawley LR: Perceived control: A construct that bridges theories of motivated behavior. In Roberts GC (ed),Advances in Motivation in Sport and Exercise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2001, 321–356.Google Scholar
  15. (15).
    Bolles RC: Reinforcement, expectancy, and learning.Psychological Review. 1972,89:394–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. (16).
    Edwards W: The theory of decision making.Psychological Bulletin. 1954,51:380–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. (17).
    Mischel W: Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personality.Psychological Review. 1973,80:252–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. (18).
    Rotter JB:Social Learning and Clinical Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1954. 77Google Scholar
  19. (19).
    Tolman EC:Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1932.Google Scholar
  20. (20).
    Kirsch I: Self-efficacy and outcome expectancies: A concluding commentary. In Maddux JE (ed),Self-Efficacy, Adaptation, and Adjustment: Theory Research and Application. New York: Plenum, 1995, 331–345.Google Scholar
  21. (21).
    Hull CL:Essentials of Behavior. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1951.Google Scholar
  22. (22).
    Carter WB: (1990). Health behavior as a rationale process: Theory of reasoned action and multiattribute theory. In Glanz K, Lewis FM, Rimer BK (eds),Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 63–91.Google Scholar
  23. (23).
    Feather NT (ed):Expectations and Actions: Expectancy-Value Models in Psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1982.Google Scholar
  24. (24).
    Fishbein M, Ajzen I:Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1975.Google Scholar
  25. (25).
    Kirsch I:Changing Expectations: A Key to Effective Therapy. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1990.Google Scholar
  26. (26).
    Bandura A: Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.Psychological Review. 1977,84:191–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. (27).
    Rogers RW: A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change.Journal of Psychology. 1975,91:93–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. (28).
    Bandura A:Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986.Google Scholar
  29. (29).
    Janis IL, Mann L:Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice, and Commitment. New York: Macmillan, 1977.Google Scholar
  30. (30).
    Marcus BH, Rakowski W, Rossi JS: Assessing motivational readiness and decision making for exercise.Health Psychology. 1992,11:257–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. (31).
    Ajzen I, Fishbein M:Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1980.Google Scholar
  32. (32).
    Rosenstock IM: Why people use health services.Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. 1966,44:94–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. (33).
    Maddux JE, Rogers RW: Protection motivation and self-efficacy: A revised theory of fear appeals and attitude change.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 1983,19:469–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. (34).
    De Bourdeaudhuij I, Sallis JF: Relative contribution of psychosocial variables to the explanation of physical activity in three population-based adult samples.Preventive Medicine. 2002,34:279–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. (35).
    Payne N, Jones F, Harris P: The impact of working life on health behavior: The effect of job strain on the cognitive predictors of exercise.Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2002,7:342–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. (36).
    Sallis JF, Hovell MF, Hofstetter CR, et al.: A multivariate study of determinants of vigorous exercise in a community sample.Preventive Medicine. 1989,18:20–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. (37).
    Sallis JF, Hovell MF, Hofstetter CR, Barrington E: Explanations of vigorous physical activity during two years using social learning variables.Social Science Medicine. 1992,34:25–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. (38).
    Sallis JF, Calfas KJ, Alcaraz JE, Gehrman C, Johnson MF: Potential mediators of change in a physical activity promotion course for university students: Project GRAD.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1999,21:149–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. (39).
    Steptoe A, Rink E, Kerry S: Psychosocial predictors of changes in physical activity in overweight sedentary adults following counseling in primary care.Preventive Medicine. 2000,31:183–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. (40).
    Dzewaltowski DA: Toward a model of exercise motivation.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 1989,11:251–269.Google Scholar
  41. (41).
    Dzewaltowski DA, Noble JM, Shaw JM: Physical activity participation: Social cognitive theory versus the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 1990,12:388–405.Google Scholar
  42. (42).
    Rovniak LS, Anderson ES, Winett RA, Stephens RS: Social cognitive determinants of physical activity in young adults: A prospective structural equation analysis.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2002,24:149–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. (43).
    Pate RR, Trost SG, Felton GM, et al.: Correlates of physical activity behavior in rural youth.Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1997,68:241–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. (44).
    Pavone RM, Burnett KF, La Perriere A, Perna FM: Social cognitive and physical health determinants of exercise adherence for HIV-1 seropositive, early symptomatic men and women.International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 1998,5:245–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. (45).
    Resnick B: Functional performance and exercise of older adults in long-term care settings.Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 2000,26:7–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. (46).
    Resnick B: A prediction model of aerobic exercise in older adults living in a continuing-care retirement community.Journal of Aging and Health. 2001,13:287–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. (47).
    Resnick B: Testing a model of exercise behavior in older adults.Research in Nursing and Health. 2001,24:83–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. (48).
    Resnick B: Testing a model of overall activity in older adults.Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. 2001,9:142–160.Google Scholar
  49. (49).
    Resnick B, Orwig D, Magaziner J, Wynne C: The effect of social support on exercise behavior in older adults.Clinical Nursing Research. 2002,11:52–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. (50).
    Resnick B, Palmer MH, Jenkins LS, Spellbring AM: Path analysis of efficacy expectations and exercise behavior in older adults.Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2000,31:1309–1315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. (51).
    Resnick B, Zimmerman SI, Orwig D, Furstenberg AL, Magaziner J: Outcome expectations for exercise scale: Utility and psychometrics.Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences. 2000,55B:S352-S356.Google Scholar
  52. (52).
    Conn VS: Older women: Social cognitive theory correlates of health behavior.Women and Health. 1997,26:71–85.Google Scholar
  53. (53).
    Williams KE, Bond MJ: The roles of self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and social support in the self-care behaviors of diabetics.Psychology, Health, and Medicine. 2002,7:127–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. (54).
    Cousins SO: Exercise cognition among elderly women.Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 1996,8:131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. (55).
    Sallis JF, Hovell MF, Hofstetter CR: Predictors of adoption and maintenance of vigorous physical activity in men and women.Preventive Medicine. 1992,21:237–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. (56).
    Bozionelos G, Bennet P: The theory of planned behavior as predictor of exercise: The moderating influence of beliefs and personality variables.Journal of Health Psychology. 1999,4:517–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. (57).
    King AC, Castro C, Wilcox S, et al.: Personal and environmental factors associated with physical inactivity among different racial-ethnic groups of U.S. middle-aged and older-aged women.Health Psychology. 2000,19:354–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. (58).
    Salmon J, Owen N, Crawford D, Bauman A, Sallis JF: Physical activity and sedentary behavior: A population-based study of barriers, enjoyment, and preference.Health Psychology. 2003,22:178–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. (59).
    Brownson RC, Baker EA, Housemann RA, Brennan LK, Bacak SJ: Environmental and policy determinants of physical activity 78 in the United States.American Journal of Public Health. 2001,91:1995–2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. (60).
    Blue CL, Wilbur J, Marston-Scott M: Exercise among blue-collar workers: Application of the theory of planned behavior.Research in Nursing and Health. 2001,24:481–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. (61).
    Bryan AD, Rocheleau CA: Predicting aerobic versus resistance exercise using the theory of planned behavior.American Journal of Health Behavior. 2002,26:83–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. (62).
    Courneya KS, Friedenreich CM, Arthur K, Bobick TM: Understanding exercise motivation in colorectal cancer patients: A prospective study using the theory of planned behavior.Rehabilitation Psychology. 1999,44:68–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. (63).
    Kimiecik J: Predicting vigorous physical activity of corporate employees: Comparing the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 1992,14:192–206.Google Scholar
  64. (64).
    Trost SG, Saunders R, Ward DS: Determinants of physical activity in middle school children.American Journal of Health Behavior. 2002,26:95–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. (65).
    Van Ryn M, Lytle LA, Kirscht JP: A test of the theory of planned behavior for two health related practices.Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 1996,26:871–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. (66).
    Fruin DJ, Pratt C, Owen N: Protection motivation theory and adolescents perceptions of exercise.Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 1991,22:55–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. (67).
    Wurtelle SK, Maddux JE: Relative contributions of protection motivation theory components in predicting exercise intentions and behavior.Health Psychology. 1987,6:453–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. (68).
    Rodgers WM, Brawley LR: The influence of outcome expectancy and self-efficacy on the behavioral intentions of novice exercisers.Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 1996,26:618–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. (69).
    Sharpe PA, Connell CM: Exercise beliefs and behaviors among older employees: A health promotion trial.Gerontologist. 1992,32:444–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. (70).
    Calfas KJ, Sallis JF, Lovato CY, Campbell J: Physical activity and its determinants before and after college graduation.Medicine, Exercise, Nutrition, and Health. 1994,3:323–334.Google Scholar
  71. (71).
    Jordan PJ, Nigg CR, Norman GJ, Rossi JS, Benisovich SV: Does the transtheoretical model need an attitude adjustment? Integrating attitude with decisional balance as predictors of stage of change for exercise.Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2002,3:65–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. (72).
    Marcus BH, Eaton CA, Rossi JS, Harlow LL: Self-efficacy, decision-making, and stages of change: An integrative model of physical exercise.Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 1994,24:489–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. (73).
    Marcus BH, Owen N: Motivational readiness, self-efficacy, and decision-making for exercise.Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 1992,22:3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. (74).
    Myers RS, Roth DL: Perceived benefits of and barriers to exercise and stage of exercise adoption in young adults.Health Psychology. 1997,16:277–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. (75).
    Nigg CR: Explaining adolescent exercise behavior change: A longitudinal application of the transtheoretical model.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2001,23:11–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. (76).
    Prochaska JO, Velicer WF: The transtheoretical model of health behavior change.American Journal of Health Promotion. 1997,12:38–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. (77).
    Desharnais R, Bouillon J, Godin G: Self-efficacy and outcome expectations as determinants of exercise adherence.Psychological Reports. 1986,59:1155–1159.Google Scholar
  78. (78).
    Rodgers WM, Gauvin L: Heterogeneity of incentives for physical activity and self-efficacy in highly active and moderately active women exercisers.Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 1998,28:1016–1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. (79).
    Corcoran KJ: Efficacy, “skills,” reinforcement, and choice behavior.American Psychologist. 1991,46:155–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. (80).
    Corcoran KJ, Rutledge MW: Efficacy expectation changes as a function of hypothetical incentives in smokers.Psychology of Addictive Behavior. 1989,3:22–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. (81).
    Kirsch I: Efficacy expectations or response predictions: The meaning of efficacy ratings as a function of task characteristics.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1982,42:132–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. (82).
    Calfas KJ, Sallis JF, Nichols JF, et al.: Project GRAD: Two-year outcomes of a randomized controlled physical activity intervention among young adults.American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2000,18:28–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. (83).
    Castro CM, Sallis JF, Hickmann SA, Lee RE, Chen AH: A prospective study of psychosocial correlates of physical activity for ethnic minority women.Psychology and Health. 1999,14:277–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. (84).
    Dunn AD, Marcus BH, Kampert JB, et al.: Reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors: 6-month results from Project Active.Preventive Medicine. 1997,26:883–892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. (85).
    Hallam J, Petosa R: A worksite intervention to enhance social cognitive theory constructs to promote exercise adherence.American Journal of Health Promotion. 1998,13:4–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. (86).
    Marcus BH, Bock BC, Pinto BM, et al.: Efficacy of an individualized motivationally-tailored physical activity intervention.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1998,20:174–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. (87).
    Nichols JF, Wellman E, Caparosa S, et al.: Impact of a worksite behavioral skills intervention.American Journal of Health Promotion. 2000,14:218–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. (88).
    Pinto BM, Lynn H, Marcus BH, DePue J, Goldstein MG: Physician-based activity counseling: Intervention effects on mediators and motivational readiness for physical activity.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2001,23:2–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. (89).
    Epstein LH: Integrating theoretical approaches to promote physical activity.American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1998,15:257–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. (90).
    Epstein LH, Smith JA, Vara LS, Rodefer JS: Behavioral economic analysis of activity choice in obese children.Health Psychology. 1991,10:311–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. (91).
    Raynor DA, Coleman KJ, Epstein LH: Effects of proximity on the choice to be physically active or sedentary.Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1998,69:99–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. (92).
    Van Der Pligt J, De Vries NK: Expectancy-value models of health behavior: The role of salience and anticipated affect.Psychology and Health. 1998,13:289–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. (93).
    Morgan WP:Physical Activity and Mental Health. Washington DC: Taylor & Francis, 1997.Google Scholar
  94. (94).
    Dunn EC, McAuley E: Affective responses to exercise bouts of varying intensities.Journal of Social Behavior and Personality. 2001,15:201–214.Google Scholar
  95. (95).
    Gauvin L, Rejeski WJ: The exercise induced feeling inventory: Development and initial validation.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 1993,15:403–423.Google Scholar
  96. (96).
    Rejeski WJ, Gauvin L, Hobson ML, Norris JL: Effects of baseline responses, in-task feelings, and duration of activity on exercise-induced feeling states in women.Health Psychology. 1995,14:350–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. (97).
    Szabo A, Mesko A, Caputo A, Gill ET: Examination of exercise-induced feeling states in four modes of exercise.International Journal of Sport Psychology. 1998,29:376–390.Google Scholar
  98. (98).
    Treasure DC, Newberry, DM: Relationship between self-efficacy, exercise intensity, and feeling states in a sedentary population during and following an acute bout of exercise.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 1998,20:1–11.Google Scholar
  99. (99).
    Van Landuyt LM, Ekkekakis P, Hall EE, Petruzzello SJ: Throwing the mountains into the lakes: On the perils of nomothetic conceptions of the exercise-affect relationship.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2000,22:208–234.Google Scholar
  100. (100).
    Scanlan TK, Simons JP: The construct of sport enjoyment. In Roberts GC (ed),Motivation in Sport and Exercise. Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics, 1992, 199–215.Google Scholar
  101. (101).
    Wankel LM: The importance of enjoyment to adherence and psychological benefits from physical activity.International Journal of Sport Psychology. 1993,24:151–169.Google Scholar
  102. (102).
    Sallis JF, Prochaska JJ, Taylor WC, Hill JO, Geraci JC: Correlates of physical activity in a national sample of girls and boys in grades 4 through 12.Health Psychology. 1999,18:410–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. (103).
    Leslie E, Owen N, Salmon J, et al.: Insufficiently active Australian college students: Perceived personal, social, and environmental influences.Preventive Medicine. 1999,28:20–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. (104).
    Motl RW, Dishman RK, Saunders R, et al.: Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in adolescent girls.American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2001,21:110–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. (105).
    Kendzierski D, DeCarlo KJ: Physical activity enjoyment scale: Two validation studies.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 1991,13:50–64.Google Scholar
  106. (106).
    Crocker PRE, Bouffard M, Gessaroli ME: Measuring enjoyment in youth sport settings: A confirmatory factor analysis of the physical activity enjoyment scale.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 1995,17:200–205.Google Scholar
  107. (107).
    Steinhardt MA, Dishman RK: Reliability and validity of expected outcomes and barriers for habitual physical activity.Journal of Occupational Medicine. 1989,31:536–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. (108).
    Rodgers WM, Brawley LR: The role of outcome expectancies in participation motivation.Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 1991,13:411–427.Google Scholar
  109. (109).
    Gagne C, Godin G: The theory of planned behavior: Some measurement issues concerning belief-based variables.Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 2000,30:2173–2193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. (110).
    Baron RM, Kenny DA: The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1986,51:1173–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. (111).
    Rothman AJ: Toward a theory-based analysis of behavioral maintenance.Health Psychology. 2000,19:64–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. (112).
    Damush TM, Stump TE, Saporito A, Clark DO: Predictors of older primary care patients’ participation in a submaximal exercise test and a supervised, low-impact exercise class.Preventive Medicine. 2001,33:485–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. (113).
    Polivy J, Herman CP: If at first you don’t succeed: False hopes of self-change.American Psychologist. 2002,57:677–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. (114).
    Sears SR, Stanton AL: Expectancy-value constructs and expectancy violation as predictors of exercise adherence in previously sedentary women.Health Psychology. 2001,20:326–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. (115).
    Saelens BE, Epstein LH: Behavioral engineering of activity choice in obese children.International Journal of Obesity. 1998,22:275–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. (116).
    Epstein LH, Wing RR, Thompson JK, Griffin W: Attendance and fitness in aerobics exercise: The effects of contract and lottery procedures.Behavior Modification. 1980,4:465–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. (117).
    Epstein LH, Wing RR: Behavioral contracting: Health behaviors.Clinical Behavior Therapy Review. 1979,1:3–22.Google Scholar
  118. (118).
    Ewing R, Schmid T, Killingsworth R, Zlot A, Raudenbush S: Relationship between urban sprawl and physical activity, obesity, and morbidity.American Journal of Health Promotion. 2003,18:47–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. (119).
    Humpel N, Owen N, Leslie E: Environmental factors associated with adults’ participation in physical activity.American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2002,22:188–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. (120).
    Ball K, Bauman A, Leslie E, Owen N: Perceived environmental and social influences on walking for exercise in Australian adults.Preventive Medicine. 2001,33:434–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. (121).
    Booth ML, Owen N, Bauman A, Calvisi O, Leslie E: Social-cognitive and perceived environmental influences associated with physical activity in older Australians.Preventive Medicine. 2000,31:15–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. (122).
    Giles-Corti B, Donovan RJ: The relative influence of individual, social and physical environmental determinants of physical activity.Social Science and Medicine. 2002,54:1793–1812.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. (123).
    Sallis JF, Johnson MF, Calfas KJ, Caparosa S, Nichols JF: Assessing perceived physical environmental variables that may influence physical activity.Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1997,68:345–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. (124).
    Sallis JF, Bauman A, Pratt M: Environmental and policy interventions to promote physical activity.American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1998,15:379–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. (125).
    Vuori IM, Oja P, Paronen O: Physically active commuting to work: Testing its potential for exercise promotion.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1994,26:844–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. (126).
    Napolitano MA, Marcus BS: Targeting and tailoring physical activity information using print and information technologies.Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. 2002,30:122–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Williams
    • 1
  • Eileen S. Anderson
    • 1
  • Richard A. Winett
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Research in Health BehaviorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations