Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 219–228

Posttraumatic stress disorder, hostility, and health in women: A review of current research

  • Jean C. Beckham
  • Patrick S. Calhoun
  • D. Michael Glenn
  • John C. Barefoot
Article

Abstract

A large body of evidence indicates that hostility is related to increased morbidity and mortality and evidence is growing that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with poorer health outcomes. The majority of this research, however, has been conducted in male samples. As a result, the connections between PTSD and hostility and the ramifications of these variables on health in women are less clear. We review the current literature examining PTSD, hostility, and health in women and discuss possible mechanisms underlying the relationship between PTSD and hostility on health outcomes in the context of a proposed theoretical model. Although the current literature suggests that hostility and PTSD are related to health in women, more rigorous, focused research is lacking. A number of suggestions for future research are provided.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    Adams SH: Role of hostility in women’s health during mid-life: A longitudinal study.Health Psychology. 1994,13:488–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. (2).
    Adams SH, Cartwright LK, Ostrove JM, Stewart AJ, Wink P: Psychological predictors of good health in three longitudinal studies of educated midlife women.Health Psychology. 1998,17:412–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. (3).
    Barefoot JC, Larsen S, Lieth LVD, Schroll M: Hostility, incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and mortality in a sample of older Danish men and women.American Journal of Epidemiology. 1995,142:477–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. (4).
    Cartwright LK, Wink P, Kmetz C: What leads to good health in midlife women physicians? Some clues from a longitudinal study.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1995,57:284–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. (5).
    Knox SS, Siegmund KD, Weidner G, et al.: Hostility, social support, and coronary heart disease in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.American Journal of Cardiology. 1998,82:1192–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. (6).
    Lahad A, Heckbert SR, Koepsell TD, Psaty BM, Patrick DL: Hostility, aggression, and the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction in postmenopausal women.Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1997,43:183–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. (7).
    Matthews KA, Owens JF, Kuller LH, et al.: Are hostility and anxiety associated with carotid artherosclerosis in health postmenopausal women?Psychosomatic Medicine. 1998,60:633–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. (8).
    Shapiro D, Jamner LD, Goldstein IB: Daily mood states and ambulatory blood pressure.Psychophysiology. 1997,34:399–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. (9).
    Schnurr PP, Jankowski MK: Physical health and post-traumatic stress disorder: Review and synthesis.Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry. 1999,4:295–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. (10).
    Friedman MJ, Schnurr PP: The relationship between trauma, PTSD, and physical health. In Friedman MJ, Charney DS, Deutch AY (eds),Neurobiological and Clinical Consequences of Stress: From Normal Adaptation to PTSD. New York: Lippincott-Raven, 1995, 507–524.Google Scholar
  11. (11).
    Schnurr PP, Spiro A, Aldwin CM, Stukel TA: Physical symptom trajectories following trauma exposure: Longitudinal findings from the Normative Aging Study.The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1998,186:522–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. (12).
    Breslau N, Davis GC: Posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban population of young adults: Risk factors for chronicity.American Journal of Psychiatry. 1992,149:671–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. (13).
    Wolfe J, Schnurr PP, Brown PJ, Furey JA: Posttraumatic stress disorder and war-zone exposure as correlates of perceived health in female Vietnam War veterans.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1994,62:1235–1240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. (14).
    Butterfield MI, Forneris CA, Feldman ME, Beckham JC: Hostility and functional health status in women veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder versus women with other primary psychiatric diagnosis: A preliminary study.Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2000,13:735–741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. (15).
    Harkness L, Giller E: Families of veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder: Child social competence and behavior. In Rhoades DK, Leaveck MR, Hudson JC (eds),The Legacy of Vietnam Veterans and Their Families: Survivors of War: Catalysts for Change. Washington, DC: Agent Orange Class Assistance Program, 1995, 360–371.Google Scholar
  16. (16).
    Carrol EM, Rueger DB, Foy DW, Donahoe {jrJr.} CP: Vietnam combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: Analysis of marital and cohabiting adjustment.Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1985,94:329–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. (17).
    Westerink J, Giarratano L: The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder on partners and children of Australian Vietnam veterans.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 1999,33:841–847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. (18).
    Beckham JC, Roodman AA, Barefoot JC, et al.: Interpersonal and self-reported hostility among combat veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1996,9:335–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. (19).
    Riggs DS, Dancu CV, Gershuny BS, Greenburg D, Foa EB: Anger and post-traumatic stress disorder in female crime victims.Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1992,5:63–65.Google Scholar
  20. (20).
    Foa EB, Riggs DS, Massie ED, Yatczower M: The impact of fear activation and anger on the efficacy of exposure treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder.Behavior Therapy. 1995,26:487–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. (21).
    Raeikkoenen K, Matthews KA, Flory JD, Owens JF: Effects of hostility on ambulatory blood pressure and mood during daily living in healthy adults.Health Psychology. 1999,18:44–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. (22).
    Powch IG, Houston BK: Hostility, anger-in, and cardiovascular reactivity in white women.Health Psychology. 1996,15:200–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. (23).
    Lawler KA, Harralson TL, Armstead CA, Schmied LA: Gender and cardiovascular responses: What is the role of hostility?Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1993,37:603–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. (24).
    Fichera LV, Andreassi JL: Stress and personality as factors in women's cardiovascular reactivity.International Journal of Psychophysiology. 1998,28:143–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. (25).
    Felsten G, Leitten CL: Expressive, but not neurotic hostility is related to cardiovascular reactivity during a hostile competitive task.Personality and Individual Differences. 1993,14:805–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. (26).
    Anderson SF, Lawler KA: The anger recall interview and cardiovascular reactivity in women: An examination of context and experience.Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1995,39:335–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. (27).
    Stoney CM, Engebretson TO: Anger and hostility: Potential mediators of the gender differences in coronary heart disease. In Siegman AW, Smith TW (eds),Anger, Hostility, and the Heart. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1994, 215–237.Google Scholar
  28. (28).
    Suarez EC, Harlan E, Peoples MC, Williams {jrJr.} RB: Cardiovascular and emotional responses in women: The role of hostility and harassment.Health Psychology. 1993,12:459–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. (29).
    Markovitz JH, Matthews KA, Kiss J, Smitherman TC: Effects of hostility on platelet reactivity to psychological stress in coronary heart disease patients and in healthy controls.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1996,58:140–143.Google Scholar
  30. (30).
    Shapiro D, Goldstein IB, Jammer LD: Effects of clinical hostility, anger out, and defensiveness on ambulatory blood pressure in Black and White college students.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1996,58:354–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. (31).
    Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, Hughes M, Nelson CB: Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey.Archives of General Psychiatry. 1995,52:1048–1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. (32).
    Kessler RC, Sonnega A, Bromet E, et al.: Epidemiologic al risk factors for trauma and PTSD. In Yehuda R (ed),Risk Factors for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1999, 23–59.Google Scholar
  33. (33).
    Barefoot JC, Lipkus IM: The assessment of anger and hostility. In Siegman AW, Smith TW (eds),Anger, Hostility, and the Heart. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1994, 43–66.Google Scholar
  34. (34).
    American Psychiatric Association:Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.Google Scholar
  35. (35).
    Beckham JC, Moore SD, Reynolds V: A review of interpersonal hostility and violence in Vietnam combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2000,5:451–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. (36).
    Chemtob CM, Novaco RW, Hamada RS, Gross DM, Smith G: Anger regulation deficits in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1997,10:17–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. (37).
    Beckham JC, Feldman ME, Barefoot JC, et al.: Ambulatory cardiovascular activity in Vietnam combat veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2000,68:923–927.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. (38).
    Chemtob CM, Hamada RS, Roitblat HL, Muraoka MY: Anger, impulsivity, and anger control in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1994,62:827–832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. (39).
    Kulka RA, Schlenger WE, Fairbank JA, et al.:Trauma and the Vietnam War generation: Report of Findings from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1990.Google Scholar
  40. (40).
    McFall ME, Wright, Donovan DM, Raskind M: Multidimensional assessment of anger in Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.Comprehensive Psychiatry. 1999,40:216–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. (41).
    Pitman RK, Orr SP, Forgue DF, de Jong JB, Clairborn JM: Psychophysiologic assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam combat veterans.Archives of General Psychiatry. 1987,44:970–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. (42).
    Kilpatrick DB, Resick PA, Veronen LJ: Effects of a rape experience: A longitudinal study.Journal of Social Issues. 1981,37:1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. (43).
    Zlotnick C, Zakriski AL, Shea MT, Costello E: The long-term sequelae of sexual abuse: Support for a complex posttraumatic stress disorder.Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1996,9:195–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. (44).
    Barefoot JC, Dodge KA, Peterson BL, Dahlstrom WG, Williams RB: The Cook-Medley hostility scale: Item content and ability to predict survival.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1989,51:46–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. (45).
    Ware JE, Snoe KK, Kosinski M, Gandekl B:SF-36 Health Survey: Manual and Interpretation Guide. Boston, MA: The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, 1993.Google Scholar
  46. (46).
    Beckham JC, Feldman ME, Kirby AC, Hertzberg MA, Moore SD: Interpersonal violence and its correlates in Vietnam veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1997,53:7–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. (47).
    Kubany ES, Gino A, Denny NR, Torigoe RY: Relationship of cynical hostility and posttraumatic stress disorder among Vietnam combat veterans.Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1994,7:21–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. (48).
    Miller TQ, Smith TW, Turner CW, Guijarro ML, Hallet AJ: A meta-analytic review of research on hostility and physical health.Psychology Bulletin. 1996,119:322–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. (49).
    Adler N, Matthews KA: Health psychology: Why do some people get sick and some people stay well?Annual Review of Psychology. 1994,45:229–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. (50).
    Diamond E: The role of anger and hostility in essential hypertension and coronary heart disease.Psychology Bulletin. 1982,92:410–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. (51).
    Scheier MF, Bridges MW: Person variables and health: Personality predispositions and acute psychological states as shared determinants for disease.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1995,57:255–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. (52).
    Smith TW: Hostility and health: Current status of a psychosomatic hypothesis.Health Psychology. 1992,11:139–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. (53).
    Williams RB, Barefoot JC: Coronary-prone behavior: The emerging role of the hostility complex. In Houston BK, Snyder CR (eds),Type A Behavior Pattern: Research, Theory, and Intervention. New York: Wiley, 1988, 189–211.Google Scholar
  54. (54).
    Williams RB, Barefoot JC, Shekelle RB: The health consequences of hostility. In Chesney MA, Rosenman RH (eds),Anger and Hostility in Cardiovascular and Behavioral Disorders. Washington, DC: Hemisphere, 1985, 173–185.Google Scholar
  55. (55).
    Barefoot JC, Patterson JC, Haney TL, et al.: Hostility in asymptomatic men with angiographic ally confirmed coronary artery disease.American Journal of Cardiology. 1994,74:439–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. (56).
    Benotsch EG, Christensen AJ, McKelvey L: Hostility, social support and ambulatory cardiovascular activity.Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 1997,20:163–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. (57).
    Christensen AJ, Smith TW: Cynical hostility and cardiovascular reactivity during self-disclosure.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1993,55:193–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. (58).
    Houston BK: Anger, hostility, and psychophysiological reactivity. In Siegman AW, Smith TW (eds),Anger, Hostility, and the Heart. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1994, 97–115.Google Scholar
  59. (59).
    Suarez EC, Kuhn CM, Schanberg SM, Williams RB, Zimmering EA: Neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and emotional responses of hostile men: The role of interpersonal challenge.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1998,60:78–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. (60).
    Brosschot JF, Thayer JF: Anger inhibition, cardiovascular recovery, and vagal function: A model of the link between hostility and cardiovascular disease.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1998,20:326–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. (61).
    Sloan RP, Shapiro PA, Bagiella E, Myers MM, Gormon JM: Cardiac autonomic control buffers blood pressure variability responses to challenge: A psychophysiologic model of coronary artery disease.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1999,61:58–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. (62).
    Suarez EC, Bates MP, Harralson TL: The relation of hostility to lipids and lipoproteins in women: Evidence for the role of antagonistic hostility.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1998,20:59–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. (63).
    Shapiro D, Goldstein IB, Jammer LD: Effects of anger/hostility, defensiveness, gender, and family history of hypertension on cardiovascular reactivity.Psychophysiology. 1995,32:425–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. (64).
    Fukudo S, Lane JD, Anderson NB, et al.: Accentuated vagal antagonism of beta adrenergic effects on ventricular repolarization: Evidence of weaker antagonism in hostile type A men.Circulation. 1992,85:2045–2053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. (65).
    Sloan RP, Demeersman RE, Shapiro PA, et al.: Cardiac autonomic control is inversely related to blood pressure variability responses to psychological challenge.American Journal of Physiology. 1997,272:H2227-H2232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. (66).
    Sloan RP, Shapiro PA, Bigger T, et al.: Cardiac autonomic control in hostility and healthy subjects.American Journal of Cardiology. 1994,74:298–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. (67).
    Dekker JM, Crow RS, Folsom A, et al.: Low heart rate variability in a 2-minute rhythm strip predicts risk of coronary heart disease and mortality from several causes: The ARIC study.Circulation. 2000,102:1239–1244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. (68).
    Kawachi I, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Weiss DS: Decreased heart rate variability in men with phobic anxiety.American Journal of Cardiology. 1995,75:882–885.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. (69).
    Miller SB, Friese M, Dolgoy L, et al.: Hostility, sodium consumption, and cardiovascular response to interpersonal stress.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1998,60:71–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. (70).
    Scherwitz LW, Perkins LL, Chesney MA, et al.: Hostility and health behaviors in young adults: The CARDIA study.American Journal of Epidemiology. 1992,136:136–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. (71).
    Sidney S, Sternfeld B, Haskell WL, et al.: Television viewing and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: The CARDIA study.Annals of Epidemiology. 1996,6:154–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. (72).
    Whiteman MC, Fowkes FG, Deary IJ, Lee AJ: Hostility, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in the general population.Social Science and Medicine. 1997,44:1089–1096.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. (73).
    Siegler I: Hostility and risk: Demographic and lifestyle variables. In Siegman AW, Smith TW (eds),Anger, Hostility, and the Heart. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1994, 199–214.Google Scholar
  74. (74).
    Leiker M, Hailey BJ: A link between hostility and disease: Poor health habits?Behavioral Medicine. 1988,3:129–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. (75).
    Miller TQ, Markides KS, Chiriboga DA, Ray LA: A test of the psychosocial vulnerability and health behavior models of hostility: Results from an 11-year follow-up study of Mexican Americans.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1995,57:572–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. (76).
    Houston BK, Vavak CR: Hostility: Developmental factors, psychosocial correlates, and health behaviors.Health Psychology. 1991,10:9–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. (77).
    Siegler I, Peterson BL, Barefoot JC, Williams RB: Hostility during late adolescence predicts coronary risk factors at mid-life.American Journal of Epidemiology. 1992,136:146–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. (78).
    Koskenvuo M, Kaprio J, Rose RJ, et al.: Hostility as a risk factor for mortality and ischemic heart disease in men.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1988,50:330–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. (79).
    Shekelle RB, Gale M, Ostfeld AM, Paul O: Hostility, risk of coronary disease and mortality.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1983,45:109–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. (80).
    Dujovne VF, Houston BK: Hostility-related variables and plasma lipid levels.Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 1991,14:555–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. (81).
    Knox SS, Jacobs {jrJr.} DR, Chesney MA, Raczynski J, McCreath Hg: Psychosocial factors and plasma lipid levels in black and white young adults: The Coronary Artery Risk in Young Adults Study data.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1996,58:365–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. (82).
    Lane JD, Pieper CF, Barefoot JC, Williams RB, Siegler I: Caffeine and cholesterol: Interactions with hostility.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1994,56:260–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. (83).
    Lundberg U, Hedman M, Melin B, Frankenhaeuser M: Type A behavior in healthy males and females as related to physiological reactivity and blood lipids.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1989,51:113–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. (84).
    Pope ML, Smith TW: Cortisol excretion in high and low cynically hostile men.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1991,53:386–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. (85).
    Vogele C: Serum lipid concentrations, hostility and cardiovascular reactions to mental stress.International Journal of Psychophysiology. 1998,28:167–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. (86).
    Weidner G, Boughal T, Connor SL, Pieper CF, Mendell NR: Relationship of job strain to standard coronary risk factors and psychological characteristics in women and men of the Family Heart Study.Health Psychology. 1997,16:239–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. (87).
    Barefoot JC, Dahlstrom WG, Williams RB: Hostility, CHD incidence, and total mortality.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1983,45:59–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. (88).
    Blumenthal JA, Barefoot JC, Burg MM, Williams RB: Psychological correlates of hostility among patients undergoing coronary angiography.British Journal of Medical Psychology. 1987,60:349–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. (89).
    Hardy JD, Smith TW: Cynical hostility and vulnerability to disease: Social support, life stress, and physiological response to conflict.Health Psychology. 1988,7:447–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. (90).
    Houston BK: Personality dimensions in reactivity and cardiovascular disease. In Schneiderman N, Weiss SM (eds),Handbook of Research Methods in Cardiovascular Medicine. New York: Plenum, 1989, 495–509.Google Scholar
  91. (91).
    Smith TW, Frohm KD: What’s so unhealthy about hostility: Construct validity and psychosocial correlates of the Cook and Medley Ho scale.Health Psychology. 1985,4:503–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. (92).
    Smith TW, Pope MK, Sanders JD, Allred KD, O’Keefe JL: Cynical hostility at home and work: Psychosocial vulnerability across domains.Journal of Research in Personality. 1988,22:525–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. (93).
    Beckham JC, Moore SD, Feldman ME, et al.: Self-report and physician-rated health in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.American Journal of Psychiatry. 1998,155:1565–1569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. (94).
    Boscarino JA: Diseases among men 20 years after exposure to severe stress: Implications for clinical research and medical care.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1997,59:605–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. (95).
    Boscarino JA, Chang J: Electrocardiogram abnormalities among men with stress-related psychiatric disorders: Implications for heart disease and clinical research.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1999,21:227–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. (96).
    Schnurr PP, Spiro A: Combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and health behaviors as predictors of self-reported physical health in older veterans.The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1999,187:353–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. (97).
    Schnurr PP, Spiro A, Paris AH: Physician-diagnosed medical disorders in relation to PTSD symptoms in older military veterans.Health Psychology. 2000,19:91–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. (98).
    Shalev A, Bleich A, Ursano RJ: Posttraumatic stress disorder: Somatic comorbidity and effort tolerance.Psychosomatics. 1990,31:197–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. (99).
    (99)David D, Esquenazi J, Mellman TA: Medical morbidity in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. 15th Annual ISTSS Meeting. Miami, FL: 1999.Google Scholar
  100. (100).
    Litz BT, Keane TM, Fisher L, Marx B, Monaco V: Physical health complaints in combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder.Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1992,5:131–141.Google Scholar
  101. (101).
    McFarlane AC, Atchison M, Rafalowicz E, Papay P: Physical symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder.Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1994,38:715–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. (102).
    Schnurr PP: Trauma, PTSD and physical health.PTSD Research Quarterly. 1996,7:1–6.Google Scholar
  103. (103).
    Davidson JRT, Hughes GH, Blazer DG, George LK: Post-traumatic stress disorder in the community: An epidemiologic study.Psychological Medicine. 1991,21:713–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. (104).
    Hovanitz CA: Physical health risks associated with aftermath of disaster: B asic paths of influence and their implications for pre-ventative intervention.Journal of Social Behavior and Personality. 1993,8:213–254.Google Scholar
  105. (105).
    Health status of Vietnam veterans: II. Physical health. The Centers for Disease Control Vietnam Experience Study.Journal of American Medical Association. 1988, 259:2708-2714.Google Scholar
  106. (106).
    Golding JM, Cooper ML, George LK: Sexual assault history and health perceptions: Seven general population studies.Health Psychology. 1997,16:417–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. (107).
    Kimerling R, Calhoun KS: Somatic symptoms, social support, and treatment seeking among sexual assault victims.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1994,62:333–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. (108).
    Koss MP, Koss PG, Woodruff WJ: Deleterious effects of criminal victimization on women's health and medical utilization.Archives of Internal Medicine. 1991,151: 342–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. (109).
    Lesserman J, Drossman DA, Li Z, et al.: Sexual and physical abuse history among female patients with gastrointestinal disorders: The impact of subsequent health care visits.Psychological Medicine. 1996,58:4–15.Google Scholar
  110. (110).
    Lesserman J, Li Z, Drossman DA, Hu YJB: Selected symptoms associated with sexual and physical abuse history among female patients with gastrointestinal disorders: The impact on subsequent health care visits.Psychological Medicine. 1998,28:417–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. (111).
    Walker EA, Newman E, Koss M, Berstein D: Does the study of victimization revictimize the victims?General Hospital Psychiatry. 1997,19:403–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. (112).
    Walker EA, Unutzer J, Rutter C, et al.: Costs of health care use by women HMO members with ahistory of childhood abuse and neglect.Archives of General Psychiatry. 1999,56:609–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. (113).
    Taft CT, Stern AS, King LA, King DW: Modeling physical health and functional health status: the role of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personal resource attributes.Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1999,12:3–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. (114).
    Resnick HS, Acierno R, Kilpatrick DG: Health impact of interpersonal violence: 1, Prevalence rates, case identification and risk factors for sexual assault, physical assault, and domestic violence in men and women.Behavioral Medicine. 1997,23:53–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. (115).
    Walling MK, Reiter RC, O’Hara MW, et al.: Abuse history and chronic pain in women: I. Prevalences of sexual abuse and physical abuse.Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1994,84:193–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. (116).
    Walling MK, O’Hara MW, Reiter RC, et al.: Abuse history and chronic pain in women II. A multivariate analysis of abuse and psychological morbidity.Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1994,84:200–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. (117).
    Friedman MJ, Charney DS, Deutch AY:Neurobiological and Clinical Consequences of Stress: From Normal Adaptation to PTSD. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1995.Google Scholar
  118. (118).
    Buckley TC, Kaloupek DG: A meta-analytic examination of basal cardiovascular activity in posttraumatic stress disorder.Psychosomatic Medicine. 2001,63:585–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. (119).
    Acierno R, Kilpatrick DB, Resick PA, Saunders BE, Best CL: Violent assault, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression: risk factors for cigarette use among adult women.Behavior Modification. 1998,20:363–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. (120).
    Brown PJ, Wolfe J: Substance abuse and post-traumatic stress comorbidity.Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 1994,35:51–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. (121).
    Najavitis LM, Weiss RD, Shaw SR: The link between substance abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder in women.The American Journal of Addictions. 1997,6:273–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. (122).
    Breslau N, Davis GC, Peterson EG, Schultz L: Psychiatric sequelae of posttraumatic stress disorder in women.Archives of General Psychiatry. 1997,54:81–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. (123).
    Bremner JD, Southwick SM, Carnell A, Charney DS: Chronic PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans: Course of illness and substance abuse.American Journal of Psychiatry. 1996,153:369–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. (124).
    Beckham JC: Smoking in Vietnam combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: A review.Journal of Psy-choactive Drugs. 1999,31: 103–110.Google Scholar
  125. (125).
    Zweben JE, Clark HW, Smith DE: Traumatic experiences and substance abuse: Mapping the territory.Journal of Psychoac-tive Drugs. 1994,26:327–344.Google Scholar
  126. (126).
    Witvliet CV: Traumatic intrusive imagery as an emotional memory phenomenon: A review of research and explanatory information processing theories.Clinical Psychology Review. 1997,17:509–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. (127).
    Chemtob CM, Roitblat HL, Hamada RS, Carlson JG, Twentyman CT: A cognitive action theory of posttraumatic stress disorder.Journal of Anxiety Disorder. 1988,2:253–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. (128).
    Foa EB, Feske U, Murdock TB, Kozak MJ, McCarthy PR: Processing of threat-related information in rape victims.Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1991,100:156–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. (129).
    Sherman AC, Walls JW: Gender differences in the relationship of moderator variables to stress and symptoms.Psychology and Health. 1995,10:321–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. (130).
    Litz BT, Keane TM: Information processing anxiety disorders: Application to the understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder.Clinical Psychology Review. 1989,9:243–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. (131).
    Pickering TG, James GD: Ambulatory blood pressure and prognosis.Journal of Hypertension Supplement. 1995,12:S29-S33.Google Scholar
  132. (132).
    Kubzansky LD, Kawachi I, Weiss ST, Sparrow D: Anxiety and coronary heart disease: A synthesis of epidemiological, psychological, and experimental evidence.Behavioral Medicine. 1998,20:47–58.Google Scholar
  133. (133).
    Orr SP, Lasko NB, Metzger LJ, et al.: Psychophysiologic assessment of women with posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from childhood sexual abuse.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1998,66:906–913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. (134).
    Breslau N, Davis GC, Andreski P, Peterson E: Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban population of young adults.Archives of General Psychiatry. 1991,48:216–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. (135).
    Barefoot JC: Development in the measurement of hostility. In Friedman HS (ed),Hostility, Coping and Health. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1992, 13–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. (136).
    Haney TL, Maynard KE, Houseworth SJ, et al.: Interpersonal Hostility Assessment Technique: Description and validation against the criterion of coronary artery disease.Journal of Personality Assessment. 1996,66:386–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. (137).
    Ironson G, Taylor CB, Boltwood M, et al.: Effects of anger on left ventricular ejection fraction in coronary artery disease.American Journal of Cardiology. 1992,70:281–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. (138).
    Kneip RC, De Lamater AM, Ismond T, et al.: Self-and spouse-ratings of anger and hostility as predictors of coronary heart disease.Health Psychology. 1993,12:301–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. (139).
    Blake DD, Weathers FW, Nagy LM, et al.: The development of a clinician-administered PTSD scale.Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1995,8:75–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. (140).
    Davidson JRT, Book SW, Colket JT, et al.: Assessment of a new self-rating scale for posttraumatic stress disorder: The Davidson Trauma Scale.Psychological Medicine. 1997,27:153–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. (141).
    Breslau N: Outcomes of posttraumatic stress disorder.Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2001,62(Suppl. 17):55–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. (142).
    Yehuda R, McFarlane AC: Conflict between current knowledge about posttraumatic stress disorder and its original conceptual basis.American Journal of Psychiatry. 1995,152:1705–1713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. (143).
    Beckham JC, Lytle BL, Vrana SR, Hertzberg MA, Feldman ME, Shipley RH: Smoking withdrawal symptoms in response to trauma-related stimuli among Vietnam combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.Addictive Behaviors. 1995,21:93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. (144).
    Anderson JC, Gerbing DW: Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach.Psychological Bulletin. 1988,103:411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. (145).
    Hatcher LA:A Step-by-Step Approach to Using the SAS System for Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc., 1994.Google Scholar
  146. (146).
    Hayduk LA:Structural Equation Modeling with LISREL: Essentials and Advances. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1989.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean C. Beckham
    • 1
  • Patrick S. Calhoun
    • 1
  • D. Michael Glenn
    • 1
  • John C. Barefoot
    • 2
  1. 1.116B, DVAMCDurham
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryDuke University Medical CenterUSA

Personalised recommendations