Confidence limits for regression relationships between distance matrices: Estimating gene flow with distance

  • Ralph T. ClarkeEmail author
  • Peter Rothery
  • Alan F. Raybould


There is growing interest in assessing relation ships between two or more distance matrices, where distances are based on genetic, geographical, and/or environmental measures of dissimilarity for all pairwise combinations of n populations. Methods are developed and assessed for estimating confidence limits for the regression relationship between dependent matrix Y and matrix X and for estimating the value of x given critical y. Methods include a regression mixed model that incorporates an additional population effects variance and a jackknife-by-population regression method that omits the (n −1) distance observations for each population in turn. The approaches are illustrated using data to quantify rates of gene flow with distance between wild plant populations of sea beet and are assessed using simulations.

Key Words

Isolation by distance Jackknife by population Mantel randomization tests Residual maximum likelihood 


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Copyright information

© International Biometric Society 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralph T. Clarke
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peter Rothery
    • 2
  • Alan F. Raybould
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Ecology and Hydrology DorsetWinfrith Technology CentreDorchesterU.K.
  2. 2.Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Monks WoodHuntingdonU.K.

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