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Table 3 Relationship between self-reported clinical symptoms and clinical examination findings and likelihood of delayed outcomea

From: Clinical examination factors that predict delayed recovery in individuals with concussion

Variable (symptom) Odd Ratio (95% confidence Interval) P value
Headache 3.53 (1.08, 11.47) 0.04
Dizziness 2.14 (1.13, 4.02) 0.02
Neck Pain 0.99 (0.47, 2.01) 0.93
Cognitive impairments 2.72 (1.40, 5.28) < 0.01
Photophobia 1.10 (0.54, 2.21) 0.79
Phonophobia 1.38 (0.64, 2.98) 0.40
Vision 0.98 (0.45, 2.13) 0.96
Clinical Examination - Cognitive testing 3.52 (1.08, 11.48) 0.04
Clinical Examination - Visual testing 2.98 (1.31, 6.80) < 0.01
Clinical Examination - Balance testing 2.04 (0.86, 4.81) 0.10
Clinical Examination - Vestibular testing 4.28 (2.18, 8.43) < 0.01
Clinical Examination - Cervical testing 2.03 (0.95, 4.34) 0.23
  1. aControl for history of concussion, LD/ADHD, and Migraines (N = 163)