Skip to main content

Table 5 Association between leg adiposity and hypertension subtypes

From: Leg and arm adiposity is inversely associated with diastolic hypertension in young and middle-aged United States adults

Variable Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3
Leg/total% Normotension 1.00 (Ref)   
IDH 1.00 (Ref) 0.79 (0.59, 1.06) 0.51 (0.37, 0.70)
SDH 1.00 (Ref) 0.70 (0.50, 0.98) 0.59 (0.43, 0.80)
ISH 1.00 (Ref) 0.84 (0.61, 1.16) 1.06 (0.70, 1.59)
Leg lean/fat ratio Normotension 1.00 (Ref)   
IDH 1.00 (Ref) 0.99 (0.73, 1.34) 0.93 (0.62, 1.38)
SDH 1.00 (Ref) 1.26 (0.95, 1.67) 1.50 (0.97, 2.32)
ISH 1.00 (Ref) 1.16 (0.83, 1.63) 1.56 (1.00, 2.41)
Leg fat % Normotension 1.00 (Ref)   
IDH 1.00 (Ref) 1.17 (0.89, 1.54) 1.04 (0.72, 1.52)
SDH 1.00 (Ref) 0.79 (0.55, 1.13) 0.67 (0.44, 1.04)
ISH 1.00 (Ref) 0.76 (0.54, 1.08) 0.69 (0.43, 1.10)
Arm/total% Normotension 1.00 (Ref)   
IDH 1.00 (Ref) 0.99 (0.73, 1.34) 0.70 (0.52, 0.95)
SDH 1.00 (Ref) 0.85 (0.62, 1.16) 0.75 (0.55, 1.02)
ISH 1.00 (Ref) 1.16 (0.82, 1.64) 1.21 (0.88, 1.65)
Arm lean/fat ratio Normotension 1.00 (Ref)   
IDH 1.00 (Ref) 1.11 (0.82, 1.50) 1.12 (0.76, 1.65)
SDH 1.00 (Ref) 1.13 (0.82, 1.54) 1.30 (0.84, 2.01)
ISH 1.00 (Ref) 1.28 (0.94, 1.75) 2.11 (1.28, 3.46)
Arm fat% Normotension 1.00 (Ref)   
IDH 1.00 (Ref) 0.94 (0.71, 1.25) 0.96 (0.66, 1.41)
SDH 1.00 (Ref) 0.93 (0.64, 1.33) 0.72 (0.46, 1.14)
ISH 1.00 (Ref) 0.64 (0.45, 0.92) 0.54 (0.34, 0.86)
  1. Data are presented as relative risk ratio (95% confidence interval)
  2. IDH isolated diastolic hypertension, SDH systolic-diastolic hypertension, ISH isolated systolic hypertension
  3. All estimates shown are fully adjusted via Model 3. Model 3 adjusts for other examination factors (leg fat parameters other than main predictor, arm fat parameters other than main predictor). Lean/fat ratio and fat % variables were not included in the same model due to significant correlation and high variance inflation factor
  4. % Total fat in lower extremities corresponds to leg/total %, leg lean mass/fat mass ratio corresponds to leg lean/fat ratio, % fat in total leg mass corresponds to leg fat %. Identical for arm measures. Tertiles are as follows: leg/total % (female: < 36, 36–41%, ≥41%; male: < 31.5, 31.5–36.0%, ≥36%); leg lean/fat ratio (female: < 1.10, 1.10–1.40, ≥1.40; male: < 2.30, 2.30–3.00, ≥3.00); leg fat % (female: < 40, 40–45%, ≥45%; male: < 24, 24–29%, ≥29%). % Total fat in upper extremities corresponds to arm/total %, arm lean mass/fat mass ratio corresponds to arm lean/fat ratio, % fat in total arm mass corresponds to arm fat %. Tertiles are as follows: arm/total % (female: < 11.6, 11.6–12.9%, ≥12.9%; male: < 11.3, 11.3–12.2%, ≥12.2%); arm lean/fat ratio (female: < 1.1, 1.1–1.5, ≥1.5; male: < 2.6, 2.6–3.5, ≥3.5); arm fat % (female: < 39, 39–45%, ≥45%; male: < 21, 21–26%, ≥26%)