Skip to main content

Table 4 Association between appendicular adiposity and HTN by BMI group

From: Leg and arm adiposity is inversely associated with diastolic hypertension in young and middle-aged United States adults

Variable BMI group
Low/normal Overweight Obese
No. (% HTN)   443 (16.9) 612 (31.7) 798 (52.1)
Leg/total % Unadjusted 0.30 (0.21, 0.43) 0.40 (0.28, 0.58) 0.79 (0.58, 1.07)
Fully adjusteda 0.53 (0.30, 0.96) 0.91 (0.58, 1.43) 0.92 (0.63, 1.33)
Arm/total % Unadjusted 1.24 (0.87, 1.75) 0.90 (0.64, 1.24) 0.89 (0.68, 1.17)
Fully adjusted 1.00 (0.69, 1.45) 0.87 (0.62, 1.23) 0.85 (0.62, 1.16)
Leg lean/fat ratio Unadjusted 1.01 (0.63, 1.61) 1.45 (1.04, 2.02) 1.05 (0.72, 1.53)
Fully adjusted 1.00 (0.54, 1.84) 1.73 (1.16, 2.56) 1.20 (0.75, 1.91)
Arm lean/fat ratio Unadjusted 0.63 (0.36, 1.11) 1.17 (0.81, 1.70) 1.13 (0.71, 1.80)
Fully adjusted 0.92 (0.48, 1.77) 2.02 (1.29, 3.17) 1.43 (0.93, 2.20)
Leg fat% Unadjusted 1.15 (0.78, 1.69) 0.61 (0.44, 0.86) 1.02 (0.69, 1.49)
Fully adjusted 1.20 (0.63, 2.29) 0.63 (0.38, 1.03) 1.15 (0.66, 1.98)
Arm fat% Unadjusted 1.66 (1.02, 2.69) 0.92 (0.67, 1.25) 0.97 (0.58, 1.61)
Fully adjusted 1.08 (0.54, 2.14) 0.74 (0.44, 1.26) 0.76 (0.45, 1.30)
  1. Data are presented as odds ratio (95% confidence interval). Odds ratio represent highest tertile vs. lowest tertile for each adiposity measure
  2. HTN hypertension, BMI body mass index, OR odds ratio
  3. aFully adjusted model is identical to Model 3. Model 3 adjusts for other examination factors (leg fat parameters other than main predictor, arm fat parameters other than main predictor). Lean/fat ratio and fat % variables were not included in the same model due to significant correlation and high variance inflation factor
  4. % Total fat in lower extremities corresponds to leg/total %, leg lean mass/fat mass ratio corresponds to leg lean/fat ratio, % fat in total leg mass corresponds to leg fat %. Identical for arm measures. Tertiles are as follows: leg/total % (female: < 36, 36–41%, ≥41%; male: < 31.5, 31.5–36.0%, ≥36%); leg lean/fat ratio (female: < 1.10, 1.10–1.40, ≥1.40; male: < 2.30, 2.30–3.00, ≥3.00); leg fat % (female: < 40, 40–45%, ≥45%; male: < 24, 24–29%, ≥29%). Arm measures: arm/total % (female: < 11.6, 11.6–12.9%, ≥12.9%; male: < 11.3, 11.3–12.2%, ≥12.2%); arm lean/fat ratio (female: < 1.1, 1.1–1.5, ≥1.5; male: < 2.6, 2.6–3.5, ≥3.5); arm fat % (female: < 39, 39–45%, ≥45%; male: < 21, 21–26%, ≥26%)